Users are able to disable or customize many more Windows components than was possible in Windows Vista. Windows Defender is included; Microsoft Security Essentials antivirus software is a free download. All editions include Shadow Copy , which—every day or so—System Restore uses to take an automatic "previous version" snapshot of user files that have changed.
A new system known as "Libraries" was added for file management; users can aggregate files from multiple folders into a "Library". By default, libraries for categories such as Documents, Pictures, Music, and Video are created, consisting of the user's personal folder and the Public folder for each. The system is also used as part of a new home networking system known as HomeGroup; devices are added to the network with a password , and files and folders can be shared with all other devices in the HomeGroup, or with specific users.
The default libraries, along with printers, are shared by default, but the personal folder is set to read-only access by other users, and the Public folder can be accessed by anyone. Windows 7 includes improved globalization support through a new Extended Linguistic Services API  to provide multilingual support particularly in Ultimate and Enterprise editions. Microsoft has also implemented better support for solid-state drives ,  including the new TRIM command , and Windows 7 is able to identify a solid-state drive uniquely.
Native support for USB 3. NET-based WCF web services ,  new features to simplify development of installation packages and shorten application install times. Additionally, users can now adjust the level at which UAC operates using a sliding scale.
Certain capabilities and programs that were a part of Windows Vista are no longer present or have been changed, resulting in the removal of certain functionalities; these include the classic Start Menu user interface, some taskbar features , Windows Explorer features , Windows Media Player features , Windows Ultimate Extras , Search button, and InkBall. Windows 7 is available in six different editions, of which the Home Premium , Professional , and Ultimate were available at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers.
Home Premium and Professional were aimed at home users and small businesses respectively, while Ultimate was aimed at enthusiasts. Each edition of Windows 7 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and adds additional features oriented towards their market segments; for example, Professional adds additional networking and security features such as Encrypting File System and the ability to join a domain.
Ultimate contained a superset of the features from Home Premium and Professional , along with other advanced features oriented towards power users, such as BitLocker drive encryption; unlike Windows Vista, there were no " Ultimate Extras " add-ons created for Windows 7 Ultimate. The remaining three editions were not available at retail, of which two were available exclusively through OEM channels as pre-loaded software.
The Starter edition is a stripped-down version of Windows 7 meant for low-cost devices such as netbooks. In comparison to Home Premium, Starter has reduced multimedia functionality, does not allow users to change their desktop wallpaper or theme, disables the "Aero Glass" theme, does not have support for multiple monitors, and can only address 2GB of RAM.
All editions aside from Starter support both IA and x architectures ; Starter only supports bit systems. The installation media for consumer versions of Windows 7 are identical; the product key and corresponding license determines the edition that is installed. The Windows Anytime Upgrade service can be used to purchase an upgrade that unlocks the functionality of a higher edition, such as going from Starter to Home Premium , and Home Premium to Ultimate.
Support for Windows 7 without Service Pack 1 ended on April 9, , requiring users to update in order to continue receiving updates and support. Professional currently remains available to OEMs, primarily as part of downgrade rights for Windows 8 and 10 licenses. Mainstream support for Windows 7 ended on January 13, Extended support for Windows 7 will end on January 14, On September 7, , Microsoft announced a paid "Extended Security Updates" service that will offer additional updates for Windows 7 Professional and Enterprise for up to three years after the end of extended support. In March , Microsoft announced that it would display notifications to users informing users of the upcoming end of support, and direct users to a website urging them to purchase a Windows 10 upgrade or a new device.
In August , researchers reported that "to all modern versions of Microsoft Windows" may be at risk for "critical" system compromise due to design flaws of hardware device drivers from multiple providers. Additional requirements to use certain features: . The maximum amount of RAM that Windows 7 supports varies depending on the product edition and on the processor architecture, as shown in the following table.
The x86 editions of Windows 7 support up to 32 logical processors; x64 editions support up to 4 x In January , Microsoft announced that it would no longer support Windows platforms older than Windows 10 on any future Intel-compatible processor lines, citing difficulties in reliably allowing the operating system to operate on newer hardware. Microsoft stated that effective July 17, , devices with Intel Skylake CPUs were only to receive the "most critical" updates for Windows 7 and 8. Microsoft and their hardware partners provide special testing and support for these devices on 7 and 8.
On March 18, , in response to criticism from enterprise customers, Microsoft delayed the end of support and non-critical updates for Skylake systems to July 17, , but stated that they would also continue to receive security updates through the end of extended support. However, the restrictions on newer CPU microarchitectures remain in force.
Security updates released since March contain bugs which affect processors that do not support SSE2 extensions, including all Pentium III processors. Microsoft initially stated that it would attempt to resolve the issue, and prevented installation of the affected patches on these systems. However, on June 15, , Microsoft retroactively modified its support documents to remove the promise that this bug would be resolved, replacing it with a statement suggesting that users obtain a newer processor.
This effectively ends future patch support for Windows 7 on these systems. A beta was released on July 12, In addition, it adds support for Advanced Format e as well as additional Identity Federation Services. In Europe, the automatic nature of the BrowserChoice. This update backports some features found in Windows 8. Windows Management Framework 5. It was released on February 24,  and was eventually superseded by Windows Management Framework 5.
The rollup is not available via Windows Update, and must be downloaded manually.
This package can also be integrated into a Windows 7 installation image. Since October , all security and reliability updates are cumulative. Downloading and installing updates that address individual problems is no longer possible, but the number of updates that must be downloaded to fully update the OS is significantly reduced. Windows 7 received critical acclaim, with critics noting the increased usability and functionality when compared with its predecessor, Windows Vista. PC Magazine rated it a 4 out of 5 saying that Windows 7 is a "big improvement" over Windows Vista, with fewer compatibility problems, a retooled taskbar, simpler home networking and faster start-up.
No version of Windows is ever perfect, but Windows 7 really is the best release of Windows yet. Some Windows Vista Ultimate users have expressed concerns over Windows 7 pricing and upgrade options. The changes to User Account Control on Windows 7 were criticized for being potentially insecure, as an exploit was discovered allowing untrusted software to be launched with elevated privileges by exploiting a trusted component.
Peter Bright of Ars Technica argued that "the way that the Windows 7 UAC 'improvements' have been made completely exempts Microsoft's developers from having to do that work themselves. With Windows 7, it's one rule for Redmond, another one for everyone else. In July , in only eight hours, pre-orders of Windows 7 at amazon. As with other Microsoft operating systems, Windows 7 was studied by United States federal regulators who oversee the company's operations following the United States v.
Microsoft Corp. According to status reports filed, the three-member panel began assessing prototypes of the new operating system in February Michael Gartenberg , an analyst at Jupiter Research , said, "[Microsoft's] challenge for Windows 7 will be how can they continue to add features that consumers will want that also don't run afoul of regulators.
In order to comply with European antitrust regulations, Microsoft proposed the use of a "ballot" screen containing download links to competing web browsers, thus removing the need for a version of Windows completely without Internet Explorer, as previously planned. As with the previous version of Windows, an N version, which does not come with Windows Media Player , has been released in Europe, but only for sale directly from Microsoft sales websites and selected others.
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Chapter Kill the Cursor!
Chapter Developing Stored Procedures. Chapter Building User-Defined Functions.
Chapter DDL Triggers. Part V Data Connectivity. Chapter Bulk Operations. Chapter Executing Distributed Queries.
Chapter Programming with ADO. NET 3. Chapter Sync Framework. Chapter LINQ. Chapter Asynchronous Messaging with Service Broker. Chapter Replicating Data. Chapter Policy-Based Management. Chapter Recovery Planning. Chapter Maintaining the Database. Chapter Transferring Databases. Chapter Database Snapshots. Chapter Log Shipping. Chapter Database Mirroring. Chapter Clustering. Part VII Security. Chapter Authenticating Principals. Chapter Authorizing Securables. Chapter Data Cryptography. Chapter Row-Level Security. Chapter Data Audit Triggers.
Chapter Schema Audit Triggers. Chapter Performance Monitor. Chapter Tracing and Profiling. Chapter Wait States. Chapter Extended Events. Chapter Change Tracking. Chapter Change Data Capture. Chapter SQL Audit.
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