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Namespaces Article Talk. Buildup, drawdown, interference and reservoir limit testing. Slope of the P vs. The methodology has a downside in that the solution s found are not always unique, so the engineer is challenged to search for the most consistent answer by considering all data available to him from all sources, not only the well test. Chu, and J. Horizontal well tests in naturally fractured reservoirs.
Horne Stanford University OVERVIEW During the 's, there were several major advances in the science of well test interpretation, These have been associated with: i the use of pressure derivative plots, ii the common availability of computer software for rapid graphical presentation, iit the use of non-linear regression automated type curve matching , iv the availability of higher precision, high frequency data, both for pressure and flow rate, and v the development of new interpretation models, such as for multiphase flow and for multilay- ered reservoirs, This book emphasizes well test interpretation in this new computerized environment.
Reproduction or use, without express permission, of editorial or pictorial content, in any manner, is prohibited. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information con tained herein. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, neither the pub- lisher or the author assumes reponsibility for ecrors or omissions. Juli Santacruz.
Morakinyo Apampa. Nakaret Kano. Muhammad Ali Buriro.
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Publisher: Petro Way , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Table 9. The result summary of the Horner plot of the upper guage as shown in Figure Table The result summary of the semilog plot of the lower guage test as shown in Figure Figure 1 shows the geology of the formation in the study, while Figures show the model analysis used in the research work. Figures show the producing response of the vertical well with wellbore storage and skin in a homogeneous reservoir of an intersecting fault with angle of intersection.
The pressure derivative plot of the upper gauge reading shows the flow regimes of the fluid and their pressure responses with time. At first the well production is governed by the well bore storage followed by a transition into the transient state. The storage coefficient estimated from the derivative match is 0. The result of the skin shows positive causing an increase in the pressure drop along the wellbore as shown in Figure 9 and Figure The second stage is the spherical flow regime which is attributed as a result of the effect of partial penetration of the fluid as fluid flows spherically from the formation into the wellbore before the top and bottom boundaries are reached.
The reservoir thickness of the formation is calculated from the well-log survey as ft but only 20 ft of the total formation is perforated. From the plot, the spherical flow half slope is used to calculate the ratio of vertical to radial permeability given as 0. The spherical flow lasts for about one cycle 10 - hrs. The third stage of the flow regime is the transient state infinite acting radial flow.
IARF is reached after the wellbore effect becomes negligible, the effect of well geometrics, the heterogeneities are passed and the lateral boundaries are detected. From the plot, the transient period begins at hrs and ends at hrs and the permeability estimated in this period is given as 0.
This period only lasts for a complete cycle before the transition of the transient into the pseudo steady state. This is due to the effect of the boundary as pressure drops with time are constant and the flow regime is linear to the wellbore. From the Horner plot shown in Figure 11 , the first radial slope is more than double of the second radial flow which is due to the presence of faults. Pressure derivative plot of the lower gauge reading shows the flow regimes of the fluid and their pressure response with time is shown in Figure In this analysis, there are seven stages of the flow regime.
The productivity index is estimated at 0. The second stage of the flow regime is the transient state infinite acting radial flow. From the plot in Figure 12 , the transient period begins at hrs and ends at 10, hrs as long transient period is experienced during production. The effective permeability estimated in this period is given as 0. This period lasts for more than a complete cycle before the transition of the transient into the pseudo steady state.
This is due to the effect of the boundary as pressure drops with time is constant and the flow regime is linear to the wellbore.
Along a linear flow, a slope doubling transition can be seen, which indicates the presence of the first sealing fault forming a single trap in the formation. The fifth flow regime is a spherical flow. This flow regime shows the effect of fluid flow due to the effect of the intersecting fault boundary cutting across an anticlinal structure. From the plot an estimate of the ratio of the vertical to radial permeability is done to account for the vertical flow across the barriers boundaries , the estimated value is 0.
The sixth flow regime is the linear flow. The geometry of a linear flow streamline consists strictly of a parallel flow vectors. The presence of a second fault intersecting the sealing fault as seen in Figure 13 below shows the presence of the intersecting fault boundary and its effect to production as pressure changes with time is constant.
The seventh flow regime depicts the intersecting angle of the boundary. The Horner plot is used to validate the test model of the sand. From the Horner plot shown in Figures , the first radial slope is more than double of the second radial flow which is due to the presence of faults. In Figure 18 and Figure 19 , by comparing the two results with the effect of skin factor on the pressure response, the positive skin characterized from the upper gauge reading shows an effect on the pressure derivative curve by increasing the plot higher against the lower gauge response.
The permeability response of the upper gauge is higher compared to the lower gauge from the infinite acting radial flow regime. In the same figure, comparing the pressure response of the upper and lower gauge of the second interval of the test design shows that the response of the infinite radial flow corresponds with each other but their flow responses due to the effect of the intersecting fault boundary are different. Based on these results, a complete system analysis can be done to determine the optimum measure taken to optimize the total recovery of the reservoir sand and also help to determine the cost effectiveness of treatments under consideration and assists in completion decisions.
This thorough evaluation of the complete producing system establishes the flow rate versus pressure drop relation for each component of the producing system. These could be as a result of the barriers from the interpretation of the gamma ray log of the formation as the matrix stimulation in was carried on the formation to improve its productivity and there was no positive result of improvement.
Barrier bar sands are deposited in a marginal marine environment on top of the finer grained barrier foot deposits. In a barrier bar, clay breaks are correlated over a long distance. The continuity of clay breaks or other barriers can be predicted from the depositional environment. The clay breaks may limit or stop the vertical flow of the fluids.