http://mta-sts.mail.victoriasclub.co.uk/si-mejor-precio-azithromycin.php Deadline for abstract submission: June 16th, Please note that for each registration only one abstract is considered. Abstract Guidelines A one A4 page abstract, prepared according to these instructions, should be submitted online. Please do not forget to choose your topic: Synthesis, structure and analysis Biotechnology and glycomics Glycobiology of disease and pathogenesis Medicinal and biomolecular chemistry Carbohydrates in food and agriculture Other applications of carbohydrates Contributions on the above mentioned topics are welcome.
Deadline for abstract submission: 16 th June Decision notification: 25 th June Reduced fee payment: 30 th June Its urbanity contrasts with the surrounding rural areas with ancient villages and picturesque sites. It is a national monument since According to a legend, the warrior Viriathus, a Lusitanian hero, fought the Romans at this site. The Porto Airport is the best choice.
The congress venue is in a 15 - 20 minute walking distance from the Viseu city center. The conference hotels are located within walking distance. The bus terminal can be reached by taxi ca. Trains to Mangualde take two to three hours. It is also possible to take the bus to Viseu from the Lisbon Sete Rios bus station that can be reached with the red line of Metro Lisbon to S. For more information on tickets and schedules go to Rede-Expressos. For more information on tickets and schedules go to CP. Time tables for regular bus connections from Mangualde to Viseu 25 minute journey can be found at Citi Express.
Viseu is an approximately 90 minute drive from the Porto airport or a 3h drive from Lisbon, respectively. Chairperson - Dr. Insurance : All conference attendees are advised to arrange private travel insurance. The conference organizers and committee accept no liability for personal accidents or damage to property. Water : Tap water in Portugal is drinking water! Electricity : The local current is AC and the connection is made by a two-pin plug. Traveller's from the USA will require a voltage converter.
Travellers from the UK will require a plug adapter and this is best bought in the UK as they are hard to find can try at the airport. Banks are open from Monday to Friday between 8. Post offices are usually open between 8. Exchange houses operate everyday between 9 am and 1 pm and from 2 pm to 7 pm. Going out in Viseu : With your conference material you will find a city map and a brochure of Viseu with lots of necessary information.
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Please, keep the number of references to a minimum. Cyclic forms with a 7-atom ring called heptoses are rare. Carbohydrate Polymers, 45 , — Carbohydrate Polymers, 83 , — Biochemistry , sometimes called biological chemistry , is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
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Bovine serum albumin, naloxone, sodium pentobarbital, and cetylpyridinium chloride were purchased from Sigma St. All other drugs and reagents used were of analytical grade. The alga was identified by Dr.
Briefly, algae were thawed, rinsed with distilled water, ground to a fine powder under liquid nitrogen, stirred for 4 h with three volumes of 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7. The supernatant was acidified to pH 1.
The column was equilibrated and eluted with 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7. Active fractions PI and PII were re-chromatographed on the same column, combined, dialyzed against water, and lyophilized. In the present study, only the PII fraction was used, and this fraction containing lectins, identified by hemagglutinating reaction, was dissolved in distilled water before use. The dried tissue was suspended in ml of mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 6. The mixture was filtered and the supernatant solution saved.
The residue was washed with distilled water and filtered and the two supernatants combined. The final precipitate was dried at room temperature. The carbohydrate-containing fraction was dissolved in distilled water before use. For the determination of the degree of sulfation, the carbohydrate fraction was submitted to infrared spectrophotometry in KBr from to cm -1 using a model Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer Perkin Elmer, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Both the PII and carbohydrate fractions were dissolved in distilled water before use and their pH was 7. This vehicle was used in all control groups. Since both the PII and carbohydrate fractions were dissolved in distilled water, this vehicle was used for all control groups. Writhing test. Male and female mice were used in each of the two experiments performed. Animals were treated with the PII or carbohydrate fractions from B. Formalin test. Animals were pretreated with lectin or carbohydrate fractions, 30 or 60 min before for ip or po administration, respectively.
Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, was injected 15 min before the fractions, and morphine was used as standard 21, Hot-plate test.
Latency times were recorded immediately before and 30, 60, 90, and min after drug administration up to a maximum time of 40 s in order to avoid paw lesions In order to detect a possible involvement of the opioid system, animals were pretreated with naloxone 15 min before treatment with the fractions or morphine. Sodium pentobarbital was injected 30 min ip or 60 min po after the administration of PII or carbohydrate fractions and latency time to sleep time to lose the righting reflex and sleeping time duration of time to recover the righting reflex were determined.
Hemagglutination assays were conducted on rabbit erythrocytes according to the procedure described by Chiles and Bird Serial two-fold dilutions of the algal fractions were then prepared with PBS and added to well round bottom microtiter plates. An equal volume of the erythrocyte suspension was added to each well and the plates were shaken and allowed to stand at room temperature for 24 h. The activity of the fractions was reported as the minimum amount of protein causing agglutination.
This test is based on the Student t statistic and adjusts the level of significance observed to the fact that multiple comparisons are made. We also used the Student-Newman-Keuls test to detect homogeneity of the subset means.
Carbohydrate Chemistry and Glycobiology have witnessed a rapid expansion during the last few years with the development of numerous new, imaginative and. The Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Biochemistry. Second Edition. Volume 2. Carbohydrates in Chemistry and Biology 4 Volume Set. Beat Ernst. Hardcover.
Similar to morphine, naloxone reversed the effect of PII, indicating the involvement of the opioid system. These effects were also totally blocked by pretreatment with naloxone. In this case, the effect was also totally reversed by naloxone pretreatment. As expected, in this case, the effect was totally blocked in the presence of naloxone.
The effect of the carbohydrate fraction was reversed by pretreatment with naloxone Figure 1. This treatment after pH adjustment to 7. Figure 1. Sulfated polysaccharides are present in several marine organisms, including sponges 26 , marine invertebrates 10 , and red algae 15, Sulfated polysaccharides have many biological functions which depend on the binding of specific carbohydrate structures to several types of protein molecules, including lectins 11, Recently reported data 14 have shown that polysaccharides isolated from brown algae possess significant anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities.
In addition, polysaccharides with a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate structure were shown to present anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities The anticoagulant and antiproliferative effects of low molecular weight fucans with different sulfate content depend on their degree of sulfation Polysaccharides, identified as sulfated D-galactans isolated from marine red algae, present anticoagulant activity whose potency is a function of the chemical structure of the molecule, and some investigators have suggested that conformational analysis may explain the differences in biological activity among sulfated polysaccharide molecules.
In addition, a pharmacological study 18 of hydrosoluble and liposoluble extracts of the marine microalgae Chlorella stigmatophora and Phaeodactylum tricornutum showed significant anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and free scavenging activities in the hydrosoluble components from both species. No activity was detected in the liposoluble fractions and the activated constituents present in the hydrosoluble fractions probably are of a polysaccharide nature.
A recent study 32 demonstrated antiulcer activity of polysaccharides from marine algae and antipeptic activity has been observed in several types of sulfated polysaccharides such as dextran sulfate, carrageenan and fucoidan 29, The cited investigators showed that non-sulfated polysaccharides such as mannan and dextran had no antipeptic activity.
In the present study, we showed that the lectin fraction PII isolated from the B. The effects were manifested after both ip and oral administration, indicating that active compounds are well absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, in the formalin test, PII and the carbohydrate fraction seemed to act predominantly on the 2nd phase of the response, suggesting that their antinociceptive effect is mainly against pain of an inflammatory nature.
Both fractions were also active in the hot-plate test, significantly increasing the animal's reaction time to the thermal stimulus. The presence of the opioid antagonist naloxone reversed at least in part the antinociceptive effect, indicating the involvement of the opioid system in the effects of both PII and the carbohydrate fraction. The antinociceptive effect was also manifested at a central level since both fractions significantly increased the barbiturate-induced sleeping time in mice in a dose-dependent manner after both ip and oral administration.
These data are consistent with the observation that both the PII and carbohydrate fractions decrease spontaneous locomotor activity in the open-field test, with no alteration in motor coordination as measured by the rota rod test Under these conditions, its hemagglutinating activity, used as an index of lectin activity, almost completely disappeared. In conclusion, our results indicate that carbohydrate molecules present in the PII and carbohydrate fractions of the lectin from B. Furthermore, the fact that heating did not change the action of PII, but both heating and NaOH treatment enhanced the action of the carbohydrate fraction, may suggest that the antinociceptive actions of both fractions are mediated by multiple carbohydrate compounds.
The present findings, taken together with some of our previous data 18 , show that lectins and carbohydrates from some species of red algae of the Northeastern Brazilian coast present significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and could therefore be of potential therapeutical use. Hemaglutininas de algas marinhas. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal , 5: Evaluation of antioxidative activity of extracts from a brown seaweed, Sargassum siliquastrum. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry , Screening of Brazilian marine algae for hemagglutinins.
Botanica Marina , Agglutination of enzyme treated erythrocytes by Brazilian marine algae. Comparative study on hemagglutinins from the red algae Bryothamnion seaforthii and B. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal , 7: Anticoagulant properties of a fucoidan fraction. Thrombosis Research , The influence of sulfate content and molecular weight of a fucan sulfate from the brown seaweed Ecklonia kurome on its antithrombin activity.
Venous antithrombotic and anticoagulant activities of a fucoidan fraction. Thrombosis and Haemostasis , Antiherpetic and anticoagulant properties of carrageenans from the red seaweed Gigartina skottsbergii and their cyclized derivatives: correlation between structure and biological activity. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules , Searching for alternatives to heparin: sulfated fucans from marine invertebrates.
Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, 9: Relationship between sulfate groups and biological activities of fucans.