The Architecture of the Visible (Technologies: Studies in Culture & Theory Series)

Modernism’s Visible Hand
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Lady Morgan's essay illustrates, though perhaps without fully intending to, the importance of death to the Diorama argued above—its uncanny habit of always turning up. With these examples of double-effect Dioramas in view, it is possible to revisit the relationship of the Diorama to the panorama, and to make a few further observations. I suggested above that the Diorama was characterised by intensity rather than immensity of illusion. The panorama, by contrast, creates an illusion that is to be prolonged : with the infinite stillness, perhaps, of death, the effect lasts without changing.

The panorama is arguably uncanny in relation to space in another sense as well, at least in the cases in which the inside walls of the rotunda revealed a mechanical replication of the invisible vistas of home as in Horner's London, for Londoners. By contrast, the Diorama suggests an uncanny relation to time, insofar as past, present, and future are not only controlled and replicated, but also repeated.

In the Diorama, illusion is created and removed, and creation and removal are explicit features of the exhibition—are dramatized by the exhibition—rather than being merely its invisible precondition, and inevitable fate. It could be said that while the panorama stages the visible, the Diorama, through the repetition of concealment and revelation, dramatises the invisible-within-the-visible, but with a curious effect: no corresponding demystification, but rather, the opposite, as its "magic" holds sway.

The charm of the Diorama draws not only from the artistic excellence of its illusion making capabilities contentious as that was , or from its apparent participation in the repetition compulsion in association with the death drive , but also from its ability to put the spectre back into the spectacular. Gothic subjects were already a favourite for the transparencies that were fashionable as window decorations in the period, before the advent of the Diorama. John Imison's instructions for painting such transparencies point out their innate suitability:.

These same effects can, as we have seen, be created by views of cathedral interiors. In general, religious architecture is a potent subject, capitalizing as it does on both sublime and picturesque effects.

The Architecture of the Visible (Technologies: Studies in Culture & Theory Series)

Certain Diorama images, such as "The Ruins of Holyrood Chapel by Moonlight," could serve as illustrations to any number of late eighteenth-century Gothic novels, in their evocation of certain stock settings: monasteries, cloisters, churchyards. The success of Daguerre's "Holyrood Chapel," exhibited in , illustrates effectively the intrinsic appeal of Gothic spaces in the Diorama Gernsheim claims that the chapel was "the most popular subject during the first decade of the Diorama"s existence" [25].

As the review in The Mirror of Literature which came complete with a woodcut of the Diorama helpfully points out, the church was originally Norman, dating from , and was "Gothicised" in the fifteenth century 26 March The picture as a whole was hailed as "perhaps, the greatest triumph ever achieved in the pictorial art" , and the reviewer captures in detail the subtle atmospheric effects of night-time, from "the stars [that] actually scintillate in their spheres," to the moon that "gently glides with scarcely perceptible motion, now through the hazy, now through the clearer air.

As The Mirror of Literature claims, however, there is more at stake here than meets the eye: "if this be painting, however exquisite, it still is something more …" , emphasis mine. This "something more" is related to the manner in which the scene appears somehow in possession of itself: "for the elements have their motions, though the objects they illuminate are fixed, and the ether hath its transparency, the stars their chrystalline, and the lamp its vital flame, though the ruin and its terrene accompaniments have their opaque solidity.

Daguerre, In spite of the extraordinary sense of self-sufficiency that the building, as a weighty "oblong Gothic pile" The Times , conveys to viewers, much of the picture's force comes from the fragmentariness of the structure. Inadequacy affects the Mirror reviewer, who laments that "it is impossible to convey by words any adequate idea of the fascination and perfect illusion of this magical picture.

The scene itself is picturesque in the highest conceivable idea of architectural representation; far more so, indeed, from its dilapidated state…, than can possibly consist with any entireness, however accompanied, of the most complicated and magnificent edifice" The marvellous self-containment of the scene comes across not only, somewhat paradoxically, in its fragmentariness, but also in the kinds of details the pictures tended to include.

Reviews often convey in their own attention to specific parts or objects in the name of conveying a sense or image of the whole to a reader who may never see it , an element of fixation, as we shall see again below. Notably, in this scene as in the discussion of "Santa Croce" above , the moonlight happens to fall upon an area of the chapel that contains several tombstones and monuments, notably, the burial place of Lord and Lady Rae. Daguerre's "Interior of Roslyn Chapel," shown the following year, contains a number of the same, potent ingredients.

First of all, there is the inherent architectural interest of the chapel itself the ruin, as The Times claims, is remarkable for being one of the most elegant specimens of Gothic architecture, "in its internal decorations, which our kingdom contains" [21 February, ]. Secondly, there is the overall excellence of the painting, the subtle effects of light, and the perfection of the illusion, which the Times reviewer suggests will be impossible to surpass.

There is detailed attention to apparently minor elements of the scene, which nevertheless stand out, not least because of the "striking accuracy" of the representation: "a basket, some broken stones, the fragments of the floor, a scaffold and some ropes, with the abrupt and scattered lights that fall upon them" ibid. There are, once again, family traditions of death and burial associated with the chapel, and more particularly, a legend with an intriguing supernatural dimension.

The superstition, recounted by Walter Scott in The Lay of the Last Minstrel , held that on the eve of the death of a Lord of Roslin, the chapel would appear full of red flames, as though on fire, but show no signs of damage afterwards. In fact, this illusion was created by the rays of the setting sun, passing through the windows—Diorama-like—when the sun was low in the sky.

Daguerre, The Mirror of Literature , , Vol. Two further Dioramas from this period, both mentioned briefly in the introduction above, made effective use of similar subjects. The first presented an imaginary design rather than a "real" place or object. This was "Ruins in a Fog" , which showed a decaying Gothic gallery enshrouded by thick fog Daguerre's oil painting of this scene, which probably differed from the Diorama image, is reproduced above.

The second, "The Interior of the Cloisters of St. Wandrille, in Normandy," was painted by Bouton. It offered another ruin scene, this time of a Gothic convent, partially lit up by the sun, and partially conveyed with "the appearance of cavernous chilness [sic]" The Mirror of Literature , 19 April This group of Dioramas on display from , with their use of ruined Gothic structures, evoke the more literary and thematic aspects of the Gothic revival in the eighteenth century, and in this are somewhat distinct from the dioramic representations of intact Gothic cathedrals such as Chartres and Canterbury In some of the Dioramas discussed above, there is at least a latent link between architecture and experience, between physical structure and mental states associated with Gothic fiction, such as terror, uncertainty, and psychological extremity.

Not only does the "phenomenological instability," as Galperin puts it, of dioramic representation, echo the indeterminacy of the gothic church Galperin 64 , the Diorama could be said to allow these two apparently distinct dimensions of Gothic to converge. A number of features of Gothic are strikingly relevant to the Diorama as a technology.

First of all, Gothic texts rely heavily on contrast, on stark oppositions including juxtaposed states of extremity. And this is precisely the territory that the Diorama explores, but in visual terms—the terrain of the unperceived, made visible in the wake of those extremes, both at, and in between, their limits. Bayer-Berenbaum is not thinking of visual technology, or even of the visual, in her account, but what she says about the Gothic and technology in general is also apposite here.

Gothicism is, she notes, the "art of the incredible" particularly in relation to technology, which has brought about "a general expansion and intensification of consciousness consistent with the gothic sensibility," along with an expansion of the "real" The importance placed on shock or surprise and, at an extreme, terror , because it allegedly gives rise to refined perception through heightened sensitivity, recalls the experience of viewers not only of the Diorama but also of other visual spectacles in Georgian England, prized for their capacity to elicit or create the "shock of the real.

This experience of imaginative or sensible "enlargement," characteristic of Gothic, often fixes on forms that are ruined, decaying or incomplete because they are unrestricted, disordered, and thus more dynamic—chaotic, even, and prone to motion and change. This is as much the reason why structures such as Holyrood Chapel made such compelling subjects for the Diorama, as it is that such structures have thematic value often of a psychological nature in literature.

The restless energy that characterizes Gothic texts is also a feature of intact Gothic buildings in their emphasis on limitless and uncontainment, it could be said that the basic premises of Gothic architecture already and in any case include the incomplete , and Bayer-Berenbaum's account of Gothic art in relation to Gothic literature is also instructive. In the case of the twelfth-century Chartres Cathedral, or any example of High Gothic cathedral architecture such as Sainte-Chapelle , Cologne, or Amiens, a wide range of design strategies conveyed in sweeping, rising lines, in "soaring verticality" effect a dematerialization of solid form.

The point of this, in these examples, is an explicitly spiritual experience, but it clearly implicates the visual, or the optical, in its experiments with proportion, diminution, and so on. The weightiness of Romanesque forms is effectively disembodied, and this was also facilitated by the effect of stained glass windows, which, as Bayer-Berenbaum notes, "create a sense of illusion through the colours and patterns they cast upon the stone" In this way, the Gothic cathedral may be seen as not just a subject but also a prototype for the Diorama: or, even, its double.

Walpole's attraction to the Gothic, as Hogle reminds us, was precisely to "the relics of 'centuries that cannot disappoint one,' because 'the dead' have become so disembodied, so merely imaged …, that there is 'no reason to quarrel with their emptiness'" , emphasis mine; Walpole Hogle's "ghost of the counterfeit" a kind of spectral doubling-up comes about by means of a progression, by which Gothic fictions are seen to have been first governed by ghosts, then by simulacra, and finally by "simulations of what is already counterfeit in the past" All this links the Gothic to the simulations of the Diorama, which could be viewed as an architecture of this very progression—not only in its visual imaging, with its particularly "transparent" form of illusion production, but also because of its repetitive enactment and indeed temporal collapse of this progress or doubling of the Gothic sign.

Perhaps in this the Diorama doesn't simply respond to, or capitalize on, the popularity of Gothic forms, but creates a space with a view so to speak to mastering or capturing the abject remainders of the counterfeit's ghostly productions. Bernard Comment argues, in The Panorama , that the invention of the panorama responded to a strong nineteenth-century need for dominance, and that the visual illusion it provided satisfied a double dream: of totality and of possession.

Even more pointedly, the shift implicit in the technology of the panorama, a shift from "representation to illusion," introduces "a new logic" with its own consequences. In the case of the panorama, Comment suggests that one of these is the rise of a collective imagination that is readily colonised by propaganda and commerce Comment Insofar as the Diorama shares in this shift from "representation to illusion," and is driven by the desire to make the real visible, so to speak, one might see how Comment's case could be extended—not only to the attraction of but also to the resistance generated by the Diorama.

Visual realism is, as Hegel teaches us, but a symptom of the loss of reality, and moreover realism in which we can include the strategies of illusionism and melancholy can be seen to share certain features: the urge to see or show things "as they are" does not reveal an intimate link to the object, but rather, "an alienation that pits the object against consciousness" Maleuvre, , Finally, though, if the panorama is implicated in the panoptic fantasy of an all-seeing vision, then the logic of the Diorama though similarly preoccupied by the enticements of illusion must be expressed differently.

Its uncanny doubleness, its relationship to death, its element of phantasmagoric spectrality, and the connections between these and the impulses of Gothic: all suggest an engagement with illusion that involves seeing through the deceptions of the visible in general, and the fantasy of possession in particular. The audience at the Diorama is not merely, as Crary would argue, a mechanical component of the scene Crary —a cog in the wheel of Rabelais's ronde machine —but able, disconcertingly, to see itself turning, in the seeing of turning that is on display.

Altick, Richard. The Shows of London Cambridge, Mass. Baudrillard, Jean. Symbolic Exchange and Death , trans. Iain Hamilton Grant London: Sage, Bayer-Berenbaum, Linda. Botting, Fred, ed. Crary, Jonathan. Galperin, William. Gernsheim, Helmut and Alison.

Gill, Arthur. Hogle, Jerrold E. Hyde, Ralph. Maggi, Angelo. Maleuvre, Didier. Punter, David, ed. As social topology grasps multiplicity, complexity and specificity of spaces and times, it is particularly suitable for studying the realization of openness in online spaces of MOOCs. It further addresses how online learning becomes a complex amalgam of practices that involve studying, as well as work, family and travel, and how this produces specific spaces and times Sheail, In order to understand spatiotemporal configurations of websites, including openness, it is necessary to examine the visible as well as the invisible features embedded in them Edwards, The open here refers to the visible explication of practices that produce topological imaginaries.

For example, when or if one thinks of school, these ideas are mainly built on the visual encounter with a school, its architecture, its learning and teaching materials and its time schedules. While texts and words can describe these imaginaries, Deleuze highlights how a textual description only acts on the visible. More importantly, particular relations with words delimit and normalize how we can think about what we see and, in this way, produce imaginaries.

For a school as exemplified above, as well as for a digital form of education such as MOOCs, this means that visible arrangements like the architecture or learning materials establish norms on how to think about the practice of schooling. Specifically, this conceptualization relates what is made open to sight to what is included in and what are the boundaries of our imaginaries, and thus, how normative views become made and delineated.

Boundaries can be considered to produce shared spaces and times in another way as well. A website, for example, constitutes a boundary of and between what a user can see e. These considerations emphasize that openness is performed by particular workings of boundaries, rather than an absence of boundaries. In order to understand openness, it should therefore be understood what boundaries open up for, what they close off and how they relate different localities.

In their publications, initiators of EMMA formulate four explicit accounts of openness to which the platform relates. The project initiators further explicate several platform features that should aid the realization of these accounts. First, they emphasize that the platform provides free-of-cost and creative commons licensed course material and stimulates learning in networks of peers ibid.

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Furthermore, MOOCs are provided by various European teachers and universities, using a system that automatically translates course content into different European languages. The platform is studied through a methodology that is developed to closely align with the topological conceptualization of openness and its relation to visibility and boundaries.

Understanding boundaries as shared spaces that mediate between localities invisible to one another Star, , the interface of EMMA is considered a central boundary. That is, producers as well as users situated in different localities conjointly produce spaces and times as visible on the interface. Interested in its workings, the study aims to move and situate itself on and beyond this boundary cf. Along these lines, a distinction between on-interface practices i. To examine on-interface practices of EMMA, data were collected through an active navigation of the platform.

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This means that the first author of this article, for about 4 weeks, visited the EMMA website and carefully examined the homepage, informational pages, the registration procedure and 6 MOOCs of different universities and from different countries. This was documented through video screen recordings and written reflections.

After the navigations, the same researcher conducted interviews with EMMA team members, all involved in the development and maintenance of the platform. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and complemented with notes. Data resulting from the navigation and interviews were brought together and reconstructed to present multiple topologies in the figure of EMMA. The data were analyzed inductively and the four accounts on openness proclaimed by EMMAs initiators were considered relevant starting points to identify and conceptualize topologies as network, access, European and data topologies.

The subsequent sections of the paper introduce descriptions on how these topologies are produced, for each topology starting with the operations of on-interface practices followed by explicating beyond-interface practices. To illustrate practices on the interface, screenshots of the website are presented. Footnote 1 In addition to these images, sketches on the forms of the topologies, i.

The circle, as the only form that holds continuous distance between a center and the perimeter, helps to visualize how different actors can be connected to each other and through a center without presenting different intervals or distances between them. Through lines and other graphical shapes, as well as through accompanying legends, the specificity of the relational distributions within the topologies are further sketched and explained. Although they do not cover all practices, the combination of descriptions, sketches and legends approach a comprehensive explanation of specific spaces and times operating in the figure of EMMA.

In the figure of EMMA, network topologies indeed appear to connect individuals, but they do not connect anything, anyone, anytime and anywhere. In what follows, it is described how these topologies are produced by on-interface practices that attach learners and teachers as fragments and through spatiotemporal boundaries.

Consequently, beyond-interface practices that establish hybrid knowledge and common interests , as well as workflows are illustrated as network topologies. Both kinds of practices show to operate around rationales of stabilizing constructions and co-presence. Therewith, they selectively tie together individuals and entities to establish specific configurations or forms of relations. On the EMMA interface, networked relations particularly come forward in webpages that enable interactions between learners and teachers.

Furthermore, learners can interact with each other on dedicated Twitter and Facebook pages presented through hyperlinks in the majority of MOOCs.

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Zimbabwean-born British Marxist Alex Callinicos argues that postmodernism "reflects the disappointed revolutionary generation of '68, and the incorporation of many of its members into the professional and managerial 'new middle class'. Paul Segal. Bernard Comment argues, in The Panorama , that the invention of the panorama responded to a strong nineteenth-century need for dominance, and that the visual illusion it provided satisfied a double dream: of totality and of possession. Emotion in organizations, 1, In this open panel, we invite scholars and organizers who are working with movement-built infrastructures in a wide array of arenas. At the same time, there has been a renewed interest in the humanities and social sciences in engaging with many of the same materials at the centre of scientific discussions about the Anthropocene: fossils, minerals, soil, coal, plants, water, and so on.

This space-time establishes an imaginary of learning as a practice of attaching pieces of information on a common surface, instead of attaching i. This network topology therewith presents itself as a spatiotemporal formation, a stabilizing construction so to say, in which the boundaries bring learners and teachers together in a coherent frame while remaining fragmented Fig. Overlapping with this construction is a network topology that is enacted through release and closing dates of MOOCs and their lessons.

Initially, these announced dates help to locate on what pages their teacher and peer learners are present and in what week, in order to know where and when to ask them questions or finish collaborative assignments. This network topology is, thus, spatiotemporally forming a co-presence and bounds a common path with shared spaces-times in which learners can attach to each other rather than merely attaching to the same surface Fig.

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ykoketomel.ml: The Architecture of the Visible: Technology and Urban Visual Culture (Technologies: Studies Series: Technologies: Studies in Culture & Theory. The Architecture of the Visible TECHNOLOGIES: STUDIES IN CULTURE & THEORY Editors: Gary Hall, Middlesex University, a.

Legend: The diagonal lines show how different associates converge, the horizontal line presents the common time and space. These associates mainly comprise institutions that provided MOOCs i.

Making Visible: The Diorama, the Double and the (Gothic) Subject | Romantic Circles

Because the development of the website remained contingent upon the relations among associates, the EMMA team had a daily task in maintaining these relations through recurrent contact. As some of the associates worked on the communication side, some on the educational design while others on the data processing and analysis, the EMMA team had to negotiate between different forms of knowledge.

For example, team members with didactic responsibilities translated their background knowledge into ideas for digital educational tools, whereas IT staff members merely used their knowledge on coding languages to develop these tools. This means that team members were continuously working on boundaries rather than working to overcome boundaries. This made that the formation of relations appeared as a stabilizing construction, yet in a different form than on the interface.

That is, all associates were connected through a common interest, and where able to adapt the construction from their own disciplinary viewpoint Fig. Networked relations beyond the interface are also performed through particular tools. Another set of tools comprised different kinds of software, such as those for project management, file sharing, telecommunication and slide presentation. However, the two sorts of tools operate in different ways. The Gantt chart as an orderly timeline enacts an imaginary of EMMAs development as a linear process, which clarifies the collaborative workflow and can be shown to a wider public, including website visitors and the EC Alhadeff-Jones, ; Latour, Hence, these overlapping topologies are performed by boundaries that separate spaces and times for those producing the platform and those who are seeing the platform Fig.

However, as access actually implies a means of entry, it should not only refer to what we have access to but equally to what we have access through. As described here first, access topologies in EMMA comprise on-interface practices that perform entrance, and that subsequently enact a path similar to a traditional school, yet equally a digital school.

Second, it is explicated how beyond-interface practices perform access topologies, establishing the platform as a mutable space and as one that centralizes learners. Together, these topologies select and order relations through boundaries.

As the access topologies appear to act upon constructions and co-presence, it is shown how they intersect with network topologies. On the interface of EMMA, access topologies stretch over multiple webpages that are all connected to the homepage. The adjoining photo then relates to an imagined learning audience with particular characteristics e. This combination of text and image thus establishes a selective imaginary, where EMMA provides entrance to a targeted group of learners.

A second selective imaginary appears through another entrance, namely, registration. Registration, as a requirement to become a learner, orders personal information including names, email addresses, birth dates, spoken languages, geographic locations, and optionally gender and professions. Moreover, it requires consent to policies and conditions, including consent to data collection and conformation to certain behaviors.

Together, these imaginaries produce access topologies that select who can access through EMMA, particularly through the performance of boundaries. By this means, hyperlinks enact boundaries similar to walls and time schedules in a traditional school, as they guide a sequential path through an entrance, through registration, through hallways, through classrooms and through a series of lectures.

The spatiotemporal formation of the relations is therefore one with multiple ordered paths, all coming back to the same initial entrance Fig. Legend: The horizontal lines indicate access points, the vertical lines illustrate the linear access through EMMA. Contrasting this school imaginary, an overlapping topology produces access through the website in a less sequential order. That is, within each lesson, the EMMA learner is constantly directed to and through different pages designated for particular activities.

This separation is enacted through the absence of simultaneous visibility, that is, an overview of the different activities. The combination of connection and separation, here, establishes a fragmented space-time configuration typical to a digital school Hassan, ; Leaton Gray, Legend: The unpredictable and discontinuous connections are illustrated through the maze-like lines. Beyond EMMAs interface, access topologies are enacted by a wide infrastructure that generally remains hidden for website visitors.

However part of this hidden infrastructure, the webserver made its central role visible in moments its operations stopped or altered Star, Legend: The arrows indicate the increasing and decreasing movements of the webserver; smaller circles indicate the different sizes and speeds of EMMA. EMMAs back-end allows teachers and team members to post their contributions with a personal photo and thus, to establish a presence or a co-presence on the front-end together with learners see Network topologies.

Yet the back-end also embeds a notification system that visualizes questions and comments of learners within a single pane instead of scattered over multiple pages as on the front end. This produces a new topology that not only intersects with networked co-presence, yet equally centralizes learners in order to enact access to learners. More specifically, instead of connecting learners and teachers among each other, the visualizations on the back-end establish a one-to-many relationship where teachers and team members could get access to learners through a centralized pane Fig.

Legend: The vertical line illustrates the access to learners from back-end, the diagonal lines illustrate the centralization of learners in this backend. While EMMA explicitly aims to transgress European national borders through its online delivery and multilingual content, this position equally substantiates the existence of boundaries that mark European territories, i.

Hence, EMMAs narrative presents a complex interweaving of digital, linguistic and territorial spaces. First, on-interface practices of EMMA that produce European topologies are presented, as they draw borders around and within Europe through various symbols , they enact home countries and a space-in-between through linguistic practices and finally show how learners slip through particular borders.

Subsequently, beyond-interface practices that enact a conflated Europeanness and linguistic bridges are laid out. Together, these European topologies interweave with digital, territorial and linguistic practices and as a result, produce boundaries that include and exclude territories and operate as shared spaces between different localities.

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Specifically, this performs an imaginary of Europe with boundaries around EU territory. Other practices, however, emphasize boundaries within the EU area. The combination of this image and text reinforces the association between language and countries or regions viz. European topologies are further performed on the EMMA interface by specific operations of the integrated translation system. In addition, it allows learners to select languages manually through the abovementioned drop-down menus and through dropdown menus in each MOOC.

As a consequence, interactions between learners mainly occur within a single language, generally their native language. However, as most MOOCs and some conversations are at least equally available in English, learners can access foreign content or interact through English. Instead, English enacts a boundary as a space in between that connects the linguistically bounded spaces and brings them closer together Prince, ; see Fig. Legend: Small circles indicate linguistic boundaries, i. Besides the translations, the course materials themselves appear to perform European topologies on the interface.

That is, each MOOC articulates the regional origin of the providing university in some specific way, for instance, through cultural examples or non-translated remainders in reading materials. Other examples of boundaries are presented in MOOC assignments where learners were invited to visit a natural setting in a specific region or a website in a regional language. The spatiotemporal formation of the course materials is therewith characterized by delimited areas, yet with porous outside borders Fig. European practices beyond the interface emerge out of relations between the EMMA team and its associates.

While they largely overlap with network topologies, these topologies are specifically European through new relations. Yet through comparison, EMMA was evaluated along similar indicators as these other platforms, inviting convergence rather than distinction e. For example, they had to balance decisions on the use of multiple European languages or only English text, and publicly funded admittance or efficient business models. Through these comparative and competitive practices, the topology forms a conflated Europeanness that merges values of non-European platforms with a typical European space Fig.

Another European topology comes forward in relations between the EMMA team, the providing universities and partners, thus excluding the EC. Central in the practices is the English language which, although appearing on the interface as well, has a specific operation in practices beyond the interface. That is, since the translation system relies on human editing, each provider was urged to translate their learning content particularly in English so that other associates could also develop translations to other languages, i.

These English translations therewith enact more than just a space in between , yet rather act as a shared space constructed by and from the different local practices cf. With respect to the spatiotemporal formation, this means that English enacts a boundary where different localities can meet and interact Fig. Still, a coherent view on data and how they operate is obscured as they often move through invisible databases and software programs, only to reappear in a visualization Williamson, As explained here first, on-interface practices produce topologies of self-tracing learners and individualizing spaces and as folds or mirrors of themselves.

In a following paragraph, it is described how beyond-interface practices shape traceable learners and produce a mold around these learners. Specific about the data topologies is that they seem to both bound and bind together the different network- access- and European topologies, so that they are realized as complexes of multiple spaces and times. On the interface, data topologies especially appear to intersect with other sorts of topologies. One example of such an intersection is visible in the registration procedure which, as previously noted, selects access through EMMA.

For example, the PLE shows learners visualizations of vertical timelines with their latest activities, ring charts on how many units they visited and how many quiz answers were correct and text bars on the amount comments and replies. These visualizations perform an imaginary of self-tracing learners who scrutinize their own actions.

However, rather than a map that promotes co-presence, this map positions access through EMMA as an individually adjusted path. Besides relating learners to their own actions on EMMA, data practices on the interface equally relate learners to each other in two specific ways. By presenting these statistics together, a topology emerges that brings learners together in a comparative relation.

Even without an additional text, this establishes an imaginary of the outcomes that are valued and that one can compete in Decuypere, More specifically, it establishes an imaginary of learners who aim to complete more lessons, to get higher quiz grades and post more comments and replies. In a second way, learners are related through data that are integrated into the network visualization presented in the PLE Fig.

This visualization shows learners as nodes in a network and their interactions in the form of line. However, by leaving out other complex details of their learning experience, the data install a particular imaginary on what it means to be in relation to each other see also Marres, Here, relations within the EMMA classroom are evaluated by the amount of interactions and the positions of the individual learners in the web of relations rather than what to communicate about and how to maintain relations.

That is, the visualizations make learners individuals as they present their connections with other learners as a way to mirror themselves, rather than to see themselves as integrative part of a learning audience Fig. Through these visualizations, the data operate as a fold, a material arrangement that produces and re produces an imaginary of learners and their learning practices by doubling or mirroring them Deleuze, This topology does not just operate on the screen of users, but is intricately interwoven with practices beyond the interface. One bow presents statistics of personal paths, the other of the aggregate learning audience.

The vertical line illustrates how data visualizations work to mirror learners. Data practices beyond the interface equally operate by visualizing learners, yet specifically by showing learners and their actions to the EMMA team and her associates while they are on the other side of the interface. For example, data show how frequently learners visit particular MOOCs, what kinds of interactions improve their retention or how many minutes they watch a video or read a text before quitting it. Thus again, an imaginary of learners is established through a selection of indicators, performing simplified norms regarding what is important for learning on EMMA.

This data topology, the one that makes up an imaginary of learners based on data, is of particular importance for the spatiotemporal configurations of the platform.

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Namely, it is this imaginary that appears to bind together the different European- network- and access topologies. They mainly show achievements on the amount of learners on the platform and their retention , aligning with the interest of the EC in expanding and intensifying open and online learning in European countries European Commission, Yet data also showed the EMMA team what interaction pages retained the largest learning communities and what hyperlinks eased access through the platform. This has particular implications for the workings of openness and boundaries in EMMA.

Second, learners are reinforced in their behavior rather than invited to change. For example, they are not impelled to prolong their attention span when watching lectures or reflect on the content of their interactions with peers. The richness and complexity of this cultural framework means that no single discipline or interdisciplinary approach could capture it single-handedly.

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Invisibility Studies begins this conversation by bringing together scholars across the fields of architectural history and theory, art, film and literature, philosophy, cultural theory and contemporary anthropology as well as featuring work by a collective of artists. Buy eBook. Currency depends on your shipping address. XXX, pp. Restricted access. Chapter Subjects: Science, Society and Culture. Add to Cart.

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