If instruction does not address the preconceptions that are problematic, students tend to leave the class with those preconceptions intact National Research Council, Students also often struggle to transfer what they learn in school to real-world situations, a sign of the limits of their understanding. Formative assessment is the key to doing so, but there are better and worse ways of using it. The results are used to assess the quantity and pace of planned instruction and decide whether the teacher should go on or reteach.
More effective, Minstrell said, but less frequently done, is using formative assessment to find out what understandings, including misconceptions or incomplete knowledge, students have, and then to adjust instruction to promote deeper understanding. Circle B represents the experiences students have as they learn, which may include observations, tasks, or experiments. Circle C represents another aspect of learning, which Minstrell calls sense-making.
Simply doing hands-on activities, he explained, is not sufficient. Students must also mentally process their observations and findings, develop inferences about their meaning, and construct explanations. Finally, circle D represents the many other contexts and representations that promote generalization and the transfer of ideas they produced through the learning experiences, for example, by exploring other hypotheses that may explain the phenomena they have observed.
The lines connecting the circles and boxes represent the ways in which instruction develops the connections among these elements. For example, when a teacher has a clear understanding of the ideas students bring to the topic, he or she can choose or adapt activities and learning opportunities that address those student ideas as well as the learning goals.
The activities may be problem sets or lab work in which students are guided to apply the ideas that have been presented and see them in action: these approaches do not typically get students thinking about how the knowledge in question was generated or come up with ideas of their own about how to solve a problem or explain phenomena. In doing so, they take responsibility for their own learning.
The teacher uses formative assessment to identify strengths on which to build and problem areas to address.
Facet clusters are derived from standards documents but they also draw. For the example of a book at rest on a table, the gravitational force down on the book and the normal force up by the table on the book are identified as an action-reaction pair. Stronger, faster.
Parents, local business persons, community leaders, and faculty from higher education act as judges of student performance. Within the television industry in the UK, for instance, equity issues have been translated into goals around diversifying the workforce. She imposes constraints on materials and time. Their central tenet is that one's evidence, logic, and claims will be questioned, and one's experiments will be subjected to replication. Nevertheless, teachers can take an inquiry approach as they guide students in acquiring and interpreting information from sources such as libraries, government documents, and computer databases—or as they gather information from experts from industry, the community, and government. All Journals. Washington, DC: U.
It is draining because you become so intensely involved with your students. In response to concerns about how to take the successes the program has had with small groups of teachers to a larger scale, Minstrell added, he and his colleagues have developed a web-based program, called Diagnoser Instructional Tools, which provides learning goals, questions designed to elicit student thinking, developmental lessons, and tools for reporting data to students and teachers students. All the tools are based on the research-based facet clusters. There is also a need for much more research to support the development of such tools as the facet clusters, Minstrell explained.
Much of the existing research on formative assessment has focused on the area of literacy. To reflect the practices of science, research in other kinds of skills will be needed. Moreover, relatively little has been done to explore the ways that formative assessments, such as the BOLT approach, can be used to elicit the cultural influences and perspectives that previous speakers discussed.
What students learn about the science disciplines, technology, engineering, and mathematics during their K schooling shapes their intellectual development, opportunities for future study and work, and choices of career, as well as their capacity to make informed decisions about political and civic issues and about their own lives.
Most people share the vision that a highly capable STEM workforce and a population that understands and supports the scientific enterprise are key to the future place of the United States in global economics and politics and to the well-being of the nation. Indeed, the solutions to some of the most daunting problems facing the nation will require not only the expertise of top STEM professionals but also the wisdom and understanding of its citizens. Although much is known about why schools may not succeed, it is far less clear what makes STEM education effective.
The report describes the primary types of K schools and programs that can support successful education in the STEM disciplines and examines data and research that demonstrate the effectiveness of these school types. It also summarizes research that helps to identify both the elements that make such programs effective and what is needed to implement these elements. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.
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No thanks. SCIENCE Richard Duschl described recent approaches focused on treating science in the classroom as a practice, and Okhee Lee discussed ways science education can reach traditionally underserved students. Page 26 Share Cite. Teaching Science as a Practice Richard Duschl noted that the volume of recent reports on the reform of science education demonstrates the attention now focused on the topic. Page 27 Share Cite. Page 28 Share Cite. Page 29 Share Cite. Reaching Diverse and Underserved Students Persistent achievement gaps between student groups are a particular concern in science education because of the increasing economic importance of science and technology, Okhee Lee noted.
Page 30 Share Cite. Page 31 Share Cite. Page 32 Share Cite. Education must be viewed as a complex system with interlocking parts. Page 33 Share Cite. Page 34 Share Cite. Page 35 Share Cite. Page 36 Share Cite. Reaching Diverse and Underserved Students As with science, researchers have explored the mathematics learning of students from nonmainstream groups, including low-income, African American, and Latino students and those with limited English proficiency.
Page 37 Share Cite. Page 38 Share Cite. Page 39 Share Cite. The BOLT framework, which has several components, takes this sec-. Page 40 Share Cite. Page 41 Share Cite. Page 42 Share Cite. Thank You! Sports Women sports wear Men sportswear Women athlatic shoes Men athlatic shoes. Food Cupboard Confectionery. Which international items are eligible for free shipping as part of the Amazon Global Store?
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Can they succeed? Exploring at-risk students' study habits in college general chemistry.