Sex Offenders and Self-Control: Explaining Sexual Violence (Criminal Justice

Prevention Strategies
Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Sex Offenders and Self-Control: Explaining Sexual Violence (Criminal Justice file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Sex Offenders and Self-Control: Explaining Sexual Violence (Criminal Justice book. Happy reading Sex Offenders and Self-Control: Explaining Sexual Violence (Criminal Justice Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Sex Offenders and Self-Control: Explaining Sexual Violence (Criminal Justice at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Sex Offenders and Self-Control: Explaining Sexual Violence (Criminal Justice Pocket Guide.

This is furthermore illustrated with a meta-analysis study conducted by Stoltenborgh et al. There are various factors that influence the risk of sexual victimisation of children depending on their age McKillop et al. In general, as children are vulnerable in physical strength and knowledge, they can become easy targets for sexual offenders. Research further suggests that younger children become victims of sexual abuse mostly in settings like a home and care institutions Barth, ; Colombino et al. Although many psychological and sociological theories have attempted to provide explanations of child sex offending, concentrating specifically on victimology and offender characteristics, one criminological approach has shed a different perspective in approaching these crimes.

In their approach, the theory posits that most criminal actions require the convergence of three elements in space and time: a motivated offender, a suitable target and the absence of capable guardians. The theory is based on human ecological theory in which the spatio-temporal social structure ensures such convergence, thus allowing motivated offenders with opportunities to commit a crime against a suitable target during their routine daily activities without the presence of capable guardians Felson, ; Felson, Therefore, the lack of any one of these elements is expected to be sufficient to prevent the occurrence of crimes.

Although the Routine Activities Approach had initially been developed for the analysis of crime rates, the successful application of this approach to many crimes such as property crimes Fisher et al. Current empirical research on child sexual violence provides crucial information in regards to the timing, context and nature of how these crimes take place. Situational crime prevention strategies have allowed criminologists to develop and implement such methods in order to hinder and disrupt the occurrence of crimes.

Some offenders use rewards, money, candy or toys in order to strengthen their relations and even use non-sexual behaviour that may not seem suspicious, especially in intrafamilial relations where it may be interpreted as positive parenting. Once again, the lack of guardians, whether it be in a domestic, public or institutional setting, will provide the necessary opportunity for the offender to take action.

In the domestic environment, parents should take the necessary privacy strategies of installing locks on bathrooms and toilets. Furthermore, in such cases when children may be watching TV or using a computer and be exposed to pornography; these devices ought to be used only in the common rooms in domestic settings within the presence of capable guardians. Unsupervised locations in institutions and public places need to be decreased with the installment of CCTV, providing hour place managers on duty and implementing new architectural designs Jeffrey, ; Newman, Sexual offences are interpersonal crimes carried out by offenders who manipulate children and force for cooperation during the actual incidence of the assault.

The period in which offenders manipulate children and enforce their cooperation takes place generally following a period of densensitisation Reynald, This step takes place gradually and subtly while the offender slowly introduces sexual cues and behaviours into the relationship with the child.

This could be prevented with resilience programs in teaching children how to become more assertive, confident and help them to refuse any sexual activities that they suspect and makes them feel uncomfortable Smallbone et al. Even in cases where a constant guardian presence may not be available, particularly where a child is left to a caregiver, parents should request thorough information in regards to the activities the child will be involved for the day. At the end of these days, parents should inquire and discuss the details of these activities with the child in order to be well-informed.

One of the gravest problems with child sexual abuse cases is in regards to the fact that it is an underreported and hidden crime. London et al. On the other hand, this study is also supported by research from adults who had been victims of child sex abuse and who were never able to come forward and share their stories Arata, ; Stoltenborgh et al. While some children may never come forward due to threats, shame, fear, reprisal or even social acceptance in certain regions, another reason for this problem is that the systematic documentation and data collection of such crimes remains to be lacking UNICEF, However, in terms of overcoming the avoidance of disclosure of children, certain steps may also be implemented.

Training sessions for teachers on how to encourage disclosure, particularly if the abuse is intrafamilial can also be of great use in ensuring that more children come forward and disclose these crimes.

AIFS Secondary links

Sex Offenders and Self-Control: Explaining Sexual Violence (Criminal Justice) [ Shawna Cleary] on ykoketomel.ml *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Cleary. Sex Offenders and Self-Control: Explaining Sexual Violence in the Department of Sociology, Criminal Justice, and Substance Abuse Studies at the University.

One of the greatest limitations of the application of Routine Activities theory to child sex abuse cases is the question of capable guardians. In certain cases of sexual abuse where young children who played the role of guardians were in close vicinity, particularly in familial abuse cases, this failed to deter some offenders with abuse McKillop et al. Child abuse, of any kind, is unacceptable and there is an abundance of actions that all States, non-governmental organisations and individuals can play in ensuring that child sex abuse incidences are prevented.

The foremost issue at hand is the proper collection of data in order to ensure and understand the magnitude of the problem and thus, develop appropriate intervention methods. Families, institutions and other individuals can be made more aware of the issue, particularly in its detection and prevention. Various types of awareness programmes regarding the crime and social norms, training sessions on resilience for children, risk-reducing programmes for parents and children and ways of encouraging disclosure from children can be undertaken to ensure that such crimes are prevented in the future.

In conclusion, child sex abuse is ever-present in the lives of children from all corners of the world, without distinguishing between the genders and age factors. Perpetrator profiles do not only include strangers, but significant evidence illustrates that offenders are also widely seen in familial relations as well as individuals who undertake duties such as caregivers and coaches.

Although crimes of a sexual nature are interpersonal crimes, this type of offending is a global and societal problem. Criminological approaches such as the Routine Activities Theory has proven through empirical research that child sex abuse cases can be prevented with the correct situational prevention methods before and during the occurrence of the abuse. Furthermore, governments and societies can ensure to implement adequate data collection, policies, effective laws and training sessions for children, parents and institutions in order to cogently develop the appropriate strategies to prevent such violence.

Aded, N. Andrews, G. Arata, C. Barth, R. Barth, J. Becker, J. Berliner, L. Budin, L.

Age and Sexual Recidivism: A Comparison of Rapists and Child Molesters

Cass, A. Clarke, R. Morris Eds. Sexual abuse histories of sexual offenders. Federal Bureau of Investigation Crime in the United States, Fernandez, Y.

How I asses sexual offenders - Patrice Renaud - TEDxBucharest

The Child Molester Empathy Measure: description and examination of its reliability and validity. Finkelhor, D. Sexual Abuse of Children, 4 2 , 31— Freeman—Longo, R. Sexual abuse in America: Epidemic of the 21st century. Gendreau, P. A meta—analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: What works!

Criminology , 34 , — Glaze, L. Probation and Parole in the United States, Greenfeld, L. Sex Offenses and offenders: An analysis of data on rape and sexual assault. Groth, N. Men who rape: The psychology of the offender. New York: Plenum. Groth, A. Adult sexual orientation and attraction to underage persons. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 7 3 , — Hanson, R.

The attitudes of incest offenders: sexual entitlement and acceptance of sex with children. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 21 , — Predictors of sexual recidivism: An updated meta—analysis, user report — Sexual victimization in the history of sexual abuser: A review. Harris, A. Sex offender recidivism: A simple question.

User Report — Harrison, P. Prisoners in Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear, Hecht Schafran, L. Writing and reading about rape: A primer. Heil, P. Crossover sexual offenses. Hughes, T. Trends in state parole: The more things change, the more they stay the same. Perspectives, 26, 26— Jones, L. Kilpatrick, D. Rape in America: A report to the nation. Knight, R. Classifying sexual offenders: The development and corroboration of taxonomic models. Marshall, D. Barbaree Eds. Langan, P.

Recidivism in prisoners released in Consistent with Fischer and McDonald and Snyder younger children were also more likely to be sexually abused by familial perpetrators and older children by nonfamilial perpetrators. Together these findings may reflect an increase of routines situated outside the family as children age e. For adolescent victims the timing of abuse may coincide within interactions with their caregivers in the home e.

  • The Thinking Processes of Sexual Predators | Psychology Today!
  • Other Subject Areas!
  • Gluten-Free Baking for the Holidays: 60 Recipes for Traditional Festive Treats?
  • Language selection.
  • Post Comment.
  • The Great Expedition - Sir Francis Drake on the Spanish Main 1585-86.
  • 1000 Best Smart Money Secrets for Students (1000 Best);

Accordingly, prevention efforts need to be responsive to lifestyle patterns associated with the developmental stages of childhood. This convergence, however, still tended to occur within familial or nonfamilial domestic settings, regardless of age. As such, prevention approaches must target this setting. There already exists a repertoire of offender-centred and child-focussed approaches to the prevention of child sexual abuse. These findings emphasize the need to extend this individual focus to include creating safer relationships and environments formally and informally in addition to safer individuals.

Essentially such interventions should be aimed at reducing opportunities to commit crime in the social ecologies and routines of everyday living Clarke , ; Cornish and Clarke , with a focus on the pre-offence and offence settings situated within the social and physical environments of potential victims and perpetrators Smallbone et al. Our initial assumption when carrying out this study was that any individual, regardless of age, could act as a potential guardian whose presence alone has the potential to deter individual from engaging in sexual abuse.

We assumed that this would be particularly influential in the decision-making of individuals at the onset of their offending rather than during subsequent offences , yet our results suggest otherwise. The majority of incidents occurred when another person was nearby, but not close enough to directly witness the incident. Again, this was regardless of victim age or gender.

Services on Demand

Similar to the findings of Underwood et al. That is, the mere presence of someone close by and even in the same room did not necessarily act as a deterrent in the decision to initiate abuse. This presence did appear to impact somewhat on the intrusiveness and duration of the incident, but not significantly so.

Despite there being others in close proximity and even in the same room where the abuse occurred, few of these incidents were directly witnessed by a third party. Overall, these findings highlight two important issues. First, from both a theoretical and practical perspective, it raises questions as to whether children can actually constitute capable guardians in these types of crimes, and whether in fact, this is a key consideration in perpetrator decision-making, even in the first instance of abuse.

Second, it raises questions as to whether the typical context in which these incidents occur domestic settings and among known individuals , compromises capable guardianship, even in adults. First, in relation to children constituting potential guardians, Reynald discussed three components of capable guardianship, particularly within micro-spaces such as domestic settings: 1 willingness to supervise, 2 ability to detect potential offending; and, 3 willingness to intervene when necessary.

Most prevention strategies to date have focussed predominantly on the second component, through education e. While there is evidence for the acquisition of such knowledge to prepare adults and children alike, the evidence remains limited regarding whether this translates into action Finkelhor Furthermore, the components of willingness to supervise and intervene implies equality within the relationships of the perpetrator and guardian, which, as the current findings suggest, is oftentimes not the case in these incidents.

Thus, the developmental e. This is likely a key consideration in offender decision-making, reducing the deterrence effect both in initiating the abuse, and for some, persisting with abuse even when witnessed, and from as early on as the first incident.

  1. Text, Cases and Materials on European Union Law.
  2. Psychological Theories.
  3. Sign Up for Email Updates.
  4. Our Mission.

Details of the ages of the children who were present were not available for this study. Studies on guardianship involving other types of crime often use a measure of age of 16 or over e. These age-related dynamics require further exploration in the context of sexual abuse. These complexities are not often present in other types of crimes where the routine activities approach has been applied.

This has implications for both the level of supervision and willingness to intervene. This is particularly so in the case of established, trusting care-giving relationships where many of the incidents occur in the context of innocuous, even positive parent—child routine interactions e. Active supervision is relaxed within such environments, and where inadvertently interrupted, can be more readily concealed, reducing capacities for detection and intervention.

The dependence of the relationship between perpetrators and potential guardians especially those involving close emotional bonds might compromise willingness to intervene or disclose due to the anticipated consequences of such action e. The complexities underlying the conceptualisation of guardianship in these contexts therefore need to be a point of focus for clarification in the academic field, to determine how useful its application, and that of the routine activities approach, can be to the prevention of child sexual abuse.

  1. The Etiology of Sexual Offending Behavior and Sex Offender Typology: An Overview!
  2. Pattern Recognition Applications and Methods: Third International Conference, ICPRAM 2014, Angers, France, March 6-8, 2014, Revised Selected Papers!
  3. Prevention Strategies|Sexual Violence|Violence Prevention|Injury Center|CDC?

While these findings are informative, they should be regarded within the limitations of the study. First, the sample size was modest, and may have compromised statistical power, thereby increasing possibility of Type II error failure to detect actual differences. The sample was also drawn from a population of convicted sexual offenders, which limits the generalizability of findings from this study to all contact sexual abuse incidents. We also did not assess whether this first known contact sexual abuse incident was pre-dated by any non-contact sexual abuse incidents, such as voyeurism or viewing child abuse images online.

It is assumed that at least some of the sample may have engaged in this behaviour prior to engaging in contact sexual abuse. Second, although we purposely recruited a nonclinical sample, and applied strict confidentiality and anonymity provisions for participants, there are still the usual challenges regarding retrospective sex offender self-report data Wood and Riggs ; Tan and Grace Third, this study focussed on the first contact sexual abuse incident and so it is not possible to ascertain if the patterns identified apply to other sexual abuse incidents beyond this initial offence.

Feldman distinguished between factors that lead to the initial offence and factors that maintain the behaviour in the current environment and there remains the question regarding how situational factors and routine activities influence not only the onset offence but offence progression as well. Given that there are still very few empirical investigations of situational dimensions of sexual abuse incidents, we encourage further studies employing larger sample sizes, including community-based samples, which examine the onset and progression of sexual offending incidents from the routine activities perspective.

Fourth, it was not possible from the data to establish whether or not any of the adult witnesses were active participants or facilitators in the first the sexual contact incident. This information would add another critical element to the understanding of guardianship within this context and should be a focus of future research.

Finally, virtually all men encounter these opportunities, but most, it is assumed, do not sexually abuse. This requires an extension beyond mainstream criminological theory to include an understanding the person-situation interaction model of human behavior Mischel ; Wortley Future studies that apply this framework to examine how dispositions or vulnerabilities of individuals interact with specific situational factors to facilitate sexual offences are encouraged.

This will provide a more complete account of how sexual abuse incidents first, and subsequently, unfold. Overall, our findings add to our understanding of the situational and contextual factors involved in the perpetration of contact child sexual abuse and demonstrate, more broadly, the utility of situational crime prevention models for explaining where, when and how child sexual abuse incidents first occur.

In particular, these findings indicate that the timing and context of sexual abuse incidents may be influenced by age-related routine activities that define convergence settings and opportunity structures. However, these abuse incidents still tend to occur in a domestic setting, regardless of age or gender, making this setting a key target area for prevention.

The findings also highlight the complexities involved in conceptualizing guardianship within the context of child sexual abuse, particularly when close, emotional bonds exist between individuals. Further theoretical and empirical exploration of the key dimensions that underpin capable guardianship for this type of crime is therefore warranted, to determine whether, and how, situational approaches can assist in understanding and preventing child sexual abuse.

Andrews, G. Child sexual abuse revisited. The Medical Journal of Australia, 10 , — Australian Bureau of Statistics. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Cass, A. Routine activities and sexual assault: an analysis of individual- and school-level factors. Violence and Victims, 22 3 , — Clarke, R.

Situational crime prevention: successful case studies. New York: Harrow and Heston. Situational crime prevention. Mazzerole Eds. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 6 , — Cohen, L. Social change and crime rate trends: a routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44 4 , — Colombino, N. Preventing sexual violence: can examination of offense location inform sex crime policy?

International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 34 , — Cornish, D. Clarke Eds. New York: Springer-Verlag. Cornish Eds. Monsey: Criminal Justice Press.

Deslauriers-Varin, N. Dube, R. Child Abuse and Neglect, 12 3 , — Feldman, P. Criminal behaviour: a psychological analysis. Chichester: Wiley. Felson, M. Routine activity approach. New York: Willan Publishing. Finkelhor, D. Child sexual abuse: new theory and research. New York: The Free Press. The prevention of childhood sexual abuse. The Future of Children, 19 , — The victimization of children and youth: a comprehensive overview.

White Ed. Fischer, D. Characteristics of intrafamilial and extrafamilial child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 22 9 , — Fisher, B. Crime in the ivory tower: the level and sources of student victimization. Criminology, 36 , — Franklin, C. Assessing the effect of routine activity theory and self-control on property, personal and sexual assault victimization. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39 , — Goldman, J. The prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in Queensland, Australia. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21 5 , — Hindelang, M.

Victims of personal crime: an empirical foundation for a theory of personal victimization. Cambridge: Ballinger Publishing Co.

Introduction

Jackson, A. Routine activity theory and sexual deviance among male college students. Journal of Family Violence, 21 , — Kaufman, K. Child Maltreatment, 3 , — An empirically based situational prevention model for child sexual abuse. Crime Prevention Studies, 19 , — Kennedy, L. Routine activity and crime: an analysis of victimization in Canada.

Criminology, 2 1 , —