New Cures, Old Medicines: Women and the Commercialization of Traditional Medicine in Bolivia

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For the maroon communities, 15 disease categories were recorded for purchased plants and in the Chapada do Araripe communities 11 categories were recorded. The digestive, respiratory and circulatory systems, as well as undefined pains and infections, were the main categories cited for the use of medicinal plants to treat illnesses.

In the Chapada do Araripe communities there was a higher citation of plants in the infectious and parasitic disease, musculoskeletal system and female genital system categories. The most cited plants are cultivated excepting for H. All communities have easy access to biomedicine, including health centers in or nearby the communities and health workers that attend to families.

The health centers represent important means of access to biomedicine, for both regions, where people can make appointments with doctors, monitor chronic health problems and access allopathic industrialized medicines. Chapada do Araripe is located in a more isolated region and lacks basic assistance eg piped water and basic sanitation , and there the guiding role of health agents is fundamental for the reduction of some diseases, such as diarrheal diseases that impact child mortality.

In the maroon communities, the access to biomedicine resources is more intense due to the proximity to urban centers and the modification of traditional livelihoods. People know and use plants to treat diseases of all categories in the two regions, but allopathic industrialized medicines are used only for 11 categories of diseases in Araripe and seven categories in maroons communities Fig 3. Medicines used for some categories were recorded for the Chapada do Araripe communities and not for the maroon communities, such as the allopathic medicines used for the digestive system, respiratory system, mental and behavioral diseases, the urinary system and blood diseases Fig 3.

However, only in the maroon communities the use of medicines was recorded for the genital system. The quartile analysis showed that the plants and medicines are used in a complementary way Table 2. Medicinal plants are used in the two regions to treat health problems related to the digestive system, respiratory, and disease or pain undefined. Additionally, they are used in the Araripe region for treatment of infectious and parasitic diseases, and reproductive system, and in the maroon communities for mental and behavioral disorders, and ritualistic use.

Allopathic medicines are used mainly to treat problems of the circulatory system, diseases and pains not defined, and endocrine and nutritional diseases. Furthermore, in Araripe, they are also used to treat problems of the musculoskeletal and connective system Table 2. It is important to consider that there may also be simultaneous use of these two treatments.

The two regions studied have differences in relation to environmental and cultural contexts, which also influences the way they use plant resources and industrializes medicines to treat health problems. We also recognize that these factors are correlated and can not be isolated from each other. On the other hand, both regions are subject to the same external processes that affected traditional health practices such as growth of the public service network.

Other process that affected both regions was the improvement of the roads since the s, reflecting a period of growth in Brazilian economy. In the s, with the establishment of the family health programs, the action of health agents and the presence of health centers in remote areas were intensified. Thus, it is important to consider both the differences between regions, as well as the similarities in the process of coexistence between traditional medicine and biomedicine. We observed different perceptions in relation to changes in the demand for healers and use of medicinal plants.

In the maroon communities the perception of a decrease in the use of traditional practices was more expressive, whereas in the Chapada do Araripe communities no change was perceived. This difference may be a result of the maintenance of traditional livelihoods in the Araripe, whose communities have not experienced a strong modernization process when compared to the maroon communities. Perceptions about changes compared to the past are relative within each region.

However, they can also indicate distinct cosmovisions of health and cure. In the case of Araripe communities, the healers, prayers, and medicinal plant specialists are widely recognized and connected through networks of exchanging knowledge and plants [ 38 ]. The same was not observed in maroon communities, and the reasons why are related to contextual differences: maroon communities are smaller, the role of healers are not as strongly recognized, and the reliance on allopathic medicine could have influenced these communities longer before the presence of health agents in the s due to the proximity to urban centers.

The perception about the experts within each community was not the same. For many experts, biomedicine presents no threat to the practice of healers, since there are some types of diseases such as those of cultural or spiritual origin that are only treated by healers [ 38 , 39 ]; and this perceptions also reflects different cosmovisions of health and cure.

In relation to knowledge of medicinal plant use, the Chapada do Araripe communities were notable for their use of extracted plants compared to the maroon communities. Medeiros et al. According to these authors this is related to several factors, including historical reasons because Europeans first settled in areas with Atlantic Forest and the inhabitants probably had more contact with the knowledge and plants brought by immigrants.

Other factors that could have influenced this are the property system, the protection of native areas of Atlantic Forest and the resource availability hypothesis [ 40 ]. Besides that, the use of medicinal plants grown in arid environments is limited by irregular rainfall and the need to save water for other more important uses [ 41 ], thus is more interesting to use the available resources already adapted to the arid environments eg native plants than cultivate plants for the same purpose.

In the two regions, purchasing plants was a form of obtainment found for almost all disease categories. The medicinal plants in the Chapada do Araripe region are purchased mainly in traditional open markets [ 12 ], which are places where traditional knowledge is maintained and, on a small scale, represent the biological and cultural diversity of the region [ 42 ]. However, in the maroon communities these resources are purchased in pharmacies or supermarkets, with no direct link with the local knowledge in the production or commercialization of these plants.

In general, extraction and cultivation help maintain traditional livelihoods and empower communities in the use of traditional medicines; on the other hand, purchasing medicinal plants is dependent on market availability and the financial resources of the buyer. Bennett and Prance [ 43 ] have also observed in other Latin American countries the prevalence of common exotic species in the local pharmacopoeias. In the region of Chapada do Araripe there is greater richness of known plants and more categories of use associated with each plant, which could indicate that the specialists in this region maintain a greater diversity of knowledge related to medicinal plants.

This may be a reflection of the traditional practices that are most used in this region, in relation to the maroon communities where we observed a decrease in the demand for healers and medicinal plants. This fact can be related to the historical context of the two regions. Despite the differences between regions, the coexistence and the complementary use of medicinal plants and allopathic medicines was observed in both.

In the two regions studied, medicinal plants are used to treat problems of digestive system, respiratory system, and general pains. Particularities of this coexistence and complementarity reflects different contexts and cosmovisions of health. For the communities of Araripe the use of plants was prominent for parasitic and reproductive system diseases especially the "women's infections" and in maroon communities for tranquilizer and ritualistic use. These differences may be related to the incidence rates of diseases in each region, as well as to cultural aspects eg, the use of plants for the treatment of cultural and spiritual diseases in the Afro-descendant maroon communities.

As discussed by Benitez et al. In addition, medicinal plants are the principal method used for self-treatment by local communities [ 17 , 46 ] and are important in primary healthcare in rural areas [ 16 ], and this is reflected in the high levels of plant use to treat primary health problems compared to the use of allopathic drugs in the studied communities. On the other hand, in both regions the use of allopathic medicines by the experts reflects the easy access to biomedicine resources.

These industrialized medicines are used principally for problems with blood pressure, general pain, and endocrine and nutritional diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. Blood pressure and diabetes mellitus are diseases that became known through biomedicine, as previously there were no means to diagnose them through traditional medicine; moreover, they are also diseases that increased their frequency in the communities as a reflection of changing livelihoods more sedentary jobs and changes in diet.

The low cost of the medicinal plants was a reason given by the interviewees to use them. People also have greater autonomy to obtain medicinal plants when compared to industrialized medicines, and they are not afraid to have collateral effects as severe as allopathic medicines.

On the other hand, according to the informants the allopathic medicines have a faster effect in alleviating the symptoms of disease, and for those with paid employments in the urban centers it is simpler to buy a medicine in a pharmacy, than to grow or collect plants. Many people who mentioned the use of allopathic medicines for health problems related to the circulatory system and undefined pains also cited the use of plants.

This is a phenomenon observed in other communities of Brazil [ 5 ] and of the world [ 47 , 48 ] and there is a need to give attention to the possible consequences of drug interaction. Traditional medicine plays a very important role in maintaining the health of the communities studied, being used in a complementary and simultaneous way with biomedicine. Whereas it is important that some diseases are treated by biomedicine, simpler ones such as light diarrhea and colds can continue to be treated with the use of plants.

Therefore, the practice of traditional medicine can not be ignored by formal health systems and should be incorporated and valued to ensure the best health benefits for communities. This incorporation must consider the particularities of each location, and the existence and reliance of healers, midwives, and prayers. Giraldi et al. The use of both traditional medicine and biomedicine is possible and can benefit local populations [ 17 , 50 , 51 ]. Even though, it is important to respect the qualifications of local health specialists that value and incorporate this knowledge into traditional safety and health practices.

While these experts feel valued, they continue spreading their knowledge of traditional medicine in the communities where they operate. Traditional medicine becomes a resource for cultural affirmation in its confrontation with the dominant medical system, and its maintenance helps to maintain traditional livelihoods and conserve the local ecosystems.

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Related to biomedicine, many examples of power abuse over populations have been documented. Qollahuaya-Andean body concepts: a topographical-hydraulic model of physiology. In particular, the objectives of this study are the following: 1 To analyze the cultural values and medicinal uses of traditional jamu pharmacy among jamu sellers in the urban environment. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning; Five main themes were explored: i occupational health concerns; ii how health is maintained; iii preferred treatment methods for any mentioned health issue; iv experiences with folk illnesses, and; v how folk illnesses are treated. Visualization: SZ.

In this study we highlight the contrasts and similarities in two different regions of Brazil and we found that access to biomedicine does not necessarily displace traditional medicine, but that these two systems can coexist in a complementary and complex way. However, there are different situations in the coexistence of these two systems. In the Araripe region, we observed a strong maintenance of health practices, reflecting historical, cultural and environmental particularities. The distance to urban centers, the size of the communities and the networks between healers and prayers, and the availability of medicinal plants in natural environments are related to such maintenance.

In the maroon communities the changes in the traditional health practices are more present, due to modernization, easy access to urban centers and urban jobs, and changes in the local livelihoods. We are assuming that in the past, maroon and Araripe communities depended more in their self reliance for health care, but one of the limitations of this study is that we do not have the precise scenario of the local health practices before the s.

In any case, there is a tendency for the two regions of a decrease in the number of healers, demand for healers, and use of medicinal plants, especially among maroons. In addition to the differences in the two regions, knowledge about medicinal plants and the use of medicines was complementary in the two regions, where medicinal plants are principally used to treat simpler diseases, such as digestive and respiratory disease and general pains, and allopathic medicines are principally used for problems with blood pressure, general pain and endocrine and nutritional diseases.

Cultivation and harvesting are still the main way of obtaining plants in both regions, and this favors the maintenance of traditional knowledge. Changes in local livelihoods may change the availability and access to plant resources, when people skip from rural activities to urban ones. However, a local cosmovision abouth health in which prayers, healers and medicinal plant specialists are valued can counterbalance these changes, and may vary depending on the socioeconomic context. It is important to create strategies to train health professionals to work under these complementary conditions of therapy and to respect the different forms of knowledge in order to seek a higher quality of the healthcare for local communities.

Organization of information on the use of allophatic medicine of Araripe informants. Organization of information on the use of allophatic medicine of Maroon informants. Organization of information on the use and the way of obtaining medicinal plants of Araripe informants.

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New Cures, Old Medicines: Women and the Commercialization of Traditional Medicine in Bolivia (Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology) [Lynn Sikkink] on. ykoketomel.ml - Buy New Cures, Old Medicines: Women and the Commercialization of Traditional Medicine in Bolivia (Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology) book.

Organization of information on the use and the way of obtaining medicinal plants of Maroon informants. Mina Movimento Negro Unificado de Santa Catarina for the help initially contacting the maroon communities and for the support returning the results, Gaia Village, J. Valadares, J. Maragno, D. Herbst, R. Dalbem, M. Ribeiro, M. Leal, D. Martins, G.

Mirizolla, G. Pasqualetti, M. Beretta, G. Antunes, M. Baumann, J. Copetti and A. Gimenez for the help with fieldwork in the maroon communities, J. Ritter, A. Mello and C. Simionato for the help identifying the plants. Conceptualization: SZ NH. Data curation: SZ NH. Formal analysis: SZ NH. Investigation: SZ. Methodology: SZ NH. Project administration: SZ. Resources: NH. Supervision: NH. Validation: SZ NH. Visualization: SZ. Writing — original draft: SZ NH. Browse Subject Areas?

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Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Material and methods Study area The study was conducted in two areas with communities that use traditional health practices but have access to biomedicine: rural communities in the Chapada do Araripe, in northeastern Brazil, and maroon quilombola communities in coastal southern Brazil. The Chapada do Araripe Communities. The maroon communities of coastal Santa Catarina. Results Practices and traditional knowledge about health In the three communities of Chapada do Araripe, 66 local health specialists were identified, including 39 healers, 23 medicinal plant specialists, 1 root specialist raizeira and 5 midwives 2 of these were also healers.

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Table 1. Coexistence between traditional practices and biomedicine All communities have easy access to biomedicine, including health centers in or nearby the communities and health workers that attend to families. Fig 3. Table 2. Categories of diseases that stand out for the use of herbal and allopathic medicines, based on the quartile analysis for the Chapada do Araripe and maroon communities. Discussion The two regions studied have differences in relation to environmental and cultural contexts, which also influences the way they use plant resources and industrializes medicines to treat health problems.

Conclusion In this study we highlight the contrasts and similarities in two different regions of Brazil and we found that access to biomedicine does not necessarily displace traditional medicine, but that these two systems can coexist in a complementary and complex way. Supporting information. S1 File. English interview protocol. Interview protocol used in the study. S1 Table. Part of Araripe allophatic medicine. S2 Table. Part of maroon allophatic medicine. S3 Table. Part of Araripe free list. S4 Table.

New Cures, Old Medicines: Women and the Commercialization of Traditional Medicine in Bolivia

Part of maroon free list. References 1. Traditional medicine. Fact sheet N Geneva: WHO. Accessed 16 June View Article Google Scholar 3. Da Silva GS. Benzedores e raizeiros: saberes partilhados na comunidade remanescente de quilombo de Santana da Caatinga. Revista Mosaico. View Article Google Scholar 4. Boing L, Stancik MA. View Article Google Scholar 5. Amorozo MCM.

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Pluralisticmedical settings and medicinal plant use in rural communities, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology. View Article Google Scholar 6. View Article Google Scholar 7. Pouliot M. View Article Google Scholar 8.

Connecting Modern Medicine to Traditional Healing: Dr. Cheo Torres at TEDxABQ

Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in Phatthalung Province, Peninsular Thailand. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. Amorozo M C. May show signs of minor shelf wear and contain limited notes and highlighting. Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller 4. Condition: UsedAcceptable. More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. Ships with Tracking Number! May not contain Access Codes or Supplements. May be ex-library. Buy with confidence, excellent customer service!. More information about this seller Contact this seller 6.

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