Borderlines in a Globalized World: New Perspectives in a Sociology of the World-System

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Borderlines in a Globalized World: New Perspectives in a Sociology of the World-System file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Borderlines in a Globalized World: New Perspectives in a Sociology of the World-System book. Happy reading Borderlines in a Globalized World: New Perspectives in a Sociology of the World-System Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Borderlines in a Globalized World: New Perspectives in a Sociology of the World-System at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Borderlines in a Globalized World: New Perspectives in a Sociology of the World-System Pocket Guide. The return of former communists to power in some post-socialist countries in transition , for Zizek is a sign that socialism is really canceled, or what political analysts wrongly perceived as a "disappointment capitalism" is in fact a disappointment of ethnic and political enthusiasm which has no place in "normal" capitalism.

Thus, the depoliticization of the economy is in a way some kind of depoliticization of the political sphere: a political struggle turned into a cultural struggle for recognition of marginal identities and tolarance of diversity. The ideological dream of a united Europe aims to achieve an impossible harmony between the two components: the full integration into the global market and maintenance of specific national and ethnic identities.

What we get in the post-communist Eastern Europe is a kind of negative, dystopian realization of that dream - in short, the worst of both worlds, unfettered market coupled with an ideological fundamentalism. Even George Soros one of the richest people on the planet, considers that the market fundamentalism is more dangerous than the totalitarian ideologies, and that the market itself is not a moral force, while Misha Glenny believes that "the widely unregulated economic field, reminds of a swamp full of nutrients for growing security problems" Glenny, : If the economy based on knowledge could make a thought experiment in which they could trace the discovery of the origin of their own knowledge they would discover that knowledge cannot be possessed.

The only exception to the tendency of disciplinary and methodological vulgarization of the ideas of knowledge, is the emergence of economic sociology. Apparently, economic sociology has made a "revolutionary" in Kuhn's sense of the word epistemological and methodological shift. What makes it a novelty is that it is the economy and economic activity, analyzed in a critical and multi-disciplinary context, as an integral part of an overall social activity, and not isolated as it is represented by the conventional economic science, or more precisely by preferential aspects of the conventional economic science.

Economic sociology is a kind of analysis that is very promising, considering the speed with which it has developed over the past ten years. It could easily become one of the key competitive methods in the analysis of economic phenomena — on the same level with neoclassical economics, the game theory and behavioral economics, in the 21 century. It is necessary to briefly examine the negative social and anti educational effects of commercialization of knowledge , which we consider to be a consequence of the institutional and cognitive manipulation of the idea of knowledge, and even the "science".

Globalization, especially economic globalization and the new economy of knowledge, are deeply associated with commercialization, or more precisely, with the commercialization of knowledge. Basically, the core of commercialization, or whatever you may consider by that term, is a commercial logic , a commercial mindset or attitude towards the people and the world. French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, and several other authors are the ones who gave us inspiration for criticism of the commercialization of knowledge.

As a result of criticism of commercial television broadcasts and commercialization in the broadest sense, he says: "It is important to look back on the fact that in history, all the cultural products that I consider to be - I hope I'm not alone in this - and that a number of others consider to be, are the highest achievements of mankind in areas of mathematics, poetry, literature, philosophy - were created to resist or neglect the level of viewership and commercial logic. Bourdieu, indeed, was not the only one to see "a very worrying fact" in the global process of commercialization of knowledge Bourdieu, : Whether the care and concern are good allies to fight against the commercialization of knowledge, is the question here.

In addition, for the main ideological promoters of economic globalization and knowledge-based economy, commercialization of knowledge is not a problem, but a desirable thing, that the global society of knowledge entails. However, let us look back for a moment, at the very core of a problem. It is well known, for instance, that Martin Heidegger, the philosopher who was in the fundamental ontology, thought that it is pure care that is the main modus of us human beings.

It is also well known, why it is his philosophy that was heavily criticized, by other great philosophers such as Richard Rorty , Jacques Derrida and Peter Sloterdijk Let us ask ourselves: ''what is the prevailing conception of philosophy today, at least in the West? We shall probably agree that in this day and age, for today's understanding of the concept of time, the prevailing conception of philosophy, is the one that treats philosophy as a business philosophy philosophy of success , or, simply, "management" Drucker.

Borderlines in a Globalized World

In that kind of philosophy, there is no trace of Heidegger's interpretation of being human being with respect to temporality , nor is there, explication of time as the transcendental horizon when it comes to a questions about the being. Also, in today's business philosophy, management, as a modern story on success, does not contain any trace of the main line of metaphysical destruction in the history of ontology on the guideline of a temporality related issue , as is named a title of one chapter that the philosopher Heidegger wrote.

In today's business philosophy - which definitely should pave its way towards the "global society of knowledge" - with a "knowledge-based economy" which, therefore, serves as a device of arriving at the magnificent goal - things related to philosophy, metaphysics, ontology and knowledge as a whole, appear to be quite different. To be more precise, the difference between those two philosophies is incomensurable. This difference speaks of "absolute anarhy of our time,"division of each modernity" Derrida, : If we asked ourselves today, like Martin Heidegger, whether we are in trouble because we forgot to ask about being and time, perhaps our response should be: no way.

The business philosophy is, finally, after the hard travel times, after years of such a thinking in the West and at least a thousand years long period of philosophical and Theosophical thinking in the East, finally revealed the truth. To simplify it: time is money , the space is transformed into a market and a thought turns into calculations. Of course, the story here is not over yet. The question of all questions that still remains after the end of times is what to do with humans, or more specifically, with what is left of him? Since that day it was not popular to speak of a man as simply as it used to be before or long ago , because it no longer was cool to talk about man as a man - the man alone has finally turned into a resource goods.

However, it became a human resources human goods , but in the end, it is just a commodity. According to Wallerstein "it is necessary to be aware of the historical system in which we live and which is sustainable only thanks to an attempt to to turn everything in the goods Wallerstein, We cannot go into the semantic nuances and identify the range of variation within the new economy of knowledge in which there are rumours about a man, or people in general in order to make the speech adapted to "natural" laws of the market and, of course, standards of "excellence" and "quality" , to be systematically, strategically and programmatically which is, of course, very innovative , the capital: human capital , intellectual capital , social capital , cultural capital and of course transcultural global capital.

It is sufficient to notice that the hyperinflation of the expansive, commercialized posthumous speech, for instance about a human, and generally "social capital", was strategicaly launched in the ies of the th century Putnam and others, It happened just in time when other changes were on the lookout not only in discourses and ways of naming our changing social reality , which can be considered global, far-reaching changes. We have selected these examples so that we could indirectly, partly interdisciplinary, partly sociosemiologically, particularly with regards to the "anachronistic simultaneousness", in which we find ourselves, trying to draw attention to the indicative, disturbing fact which in today's "knowledge society" is usually caused by indifference that the meaning of what is meant by philosophy - wisdom or knowledge - changes over time.

Our triumphantly cry "we live in a society of knowledge" has become a common place. These are the ideas that, once you have accepted them, already have been accepted in advance so that the problem of their reception does not exist. When you expose an already accepted idea, you seem to have done it already and the problem is resolved in advance. Communication is immediate, because, as Bourdieu observes, it is in a certain sense, not there. Or it seems to be only apparent. A general exchange of communication whose only content is the mere fact that something, which is already understandable to be that way, relentlessly repeats.

This is precisely the case with self-satisfied repetition of the airy, soothing slogans: we live in a society of knowledge. It is a catchword on whose wings flies a long prepared absence of thinking of new management, new economy of knowledge, commercialization, consumerism and much more. On the contrary, if we return to reason, we shall agree with those authors who argue that by definition a thought is subversive: it, therefore, must begin with the dismantling of "common places" and then it has to be demonstrated Bourdieu, : If there was enough time, it would be necessary to disassemble, ' deconstruct', or at least critically explain the background assumptions that enable one form of science, which functions in the form of a new economy of knowledge , to get identified and self-identified through again and again, regardless of the circumstances in which we live, no matter what "happens" in the world production and reproductionand that way gets recycled, is recursively renewing.

Liessman warned that "scientific" is often not more than labels that you put the prestige associated with it, wanting to improve the credibility and the likelihood of success. Among theorists of science, but is controversial whether such venerable disciplines such as economics or psychoanalysis in general science Liessman, : The same argument but in cynical interpretations: "We live in a society of knowledge. This sentence haunts educators and politicians, educators, university reformers and trustees of the European Union: it movess researchers, markets and enterprise.

Knowledge and education are the most important raw resource material of the poor Europe, and whoever invests in education, is investing in the future. With less emotions, we evoke the end of the industrial work, and the overall energy focuses on the activities of "knowledge-based" At first glance it may seem that the supposed Enlightenment dream of a completely educated man in a truly informed society, finally, becomes a reality, although a second look at the actual formation is far more realistic.

We will notice that much of what is being propagated and proclaimed under the title of a 'society of knowledge' is seen as a rhetorical gesture that owes less to the idea of education and more to a strong political and economic interests, if we observe carefully" Liessman, : 7. The idea that we live in a society of knowledge has become a commercially viable idea and it is worth repeating it but if you decide to deny it you can do it. However, considering the widely accepted and based view that we live in a society of knowledge, says Liessmann, it will only do us harm.

Commercialization of knowledge is, therefore, not only a rhetorical gesture. It leads to commercialization of private and public institutions - such as, for instance, the university - and goes far to bring us to the commercialization of life itself. The commercialization of universities, as the highest institutions of knowledge, represent a symptom of disorders of self-regulated idea of knowledge. Stanley Aronowitz, the sociologist, point out that "the learning has come under the service of a stronger administration, which does not suit many teachers and students, except in borderline cases, but tends to suit more policies and market forces that require the power over the higher education" Aronowitz, : For the cultural anthropologist Wesley Shumar, learning and research "began to be valued according to its ability to be converted into cash or goods, and not some other ways, such as aesthetics or satisfaction you gain from doing them.

In the end, you lose the idea that there are other types of values as well" Shumar, : 5. Many fear that commercially oriented activities overshadow other intellectual values and that university programmes will be assessed through the money that students bring and not by their intrinsic intellectual quality Bok, Members of the university, who oppose the excessive expansion of the commercial impact of torture, are concerned. They fear that money and efficiency can gradually get too much prominence in the academic decision-making and that the verdict of the market will get rid of the judgement of scientific workers when it comes to deciding on the teaching school methods and the setup of education board staff Bok, The modern science does not allow clear separation of scientific, industrial, technological or commercial aspects of research.

If under the influence of the new economy of knowledge, marketing and management, the administrators are tirelessly repeating that "we live in a society of knowledge", but in reality in addition to so present will of ignorance, trance or ecstasy , we see domination of dogmas and imitations, it is a symptom of the dramatic transformation of the very idea of knowledge which reaches its climax with the crisis of the neoliberal concept of globalization.

The increasing closeness of university science and profit-oriented industry produces a variety of risks to compromise, openness and objectivity of academic research Bok, As one of the authors put it down: we do not know what we need to know until we ask the right question, and we can identify the real question only if we put our own ideas about the world on the test of public controversy Lasch, The essential question is what should be and what may become the subject of scientific research.

How and by which qualitative interpretative methods will be interpreted the results of a socially sensitive research? What will be highlighted as a potential risk, what is left out, what will remain open, and what problem will be and whether it will ever be, and how anticipatory named as a possible or desirable direction of future research? For instance, if the pharmaceutical companies become major sponsors of medical research, it raises an obvious question - and that is exactly what happens in the moment.

The government encourages universities to get the sponsorships rather than to rely on the public funding Crouch, Some scientific problems deserve to be explored, although they do not have a predictable commercial value, while other areas, such as Egyptology or epistemology, deserve the greatest and highest scholarships, although only a few people read about them. Also, universities must be careful when it comes to looking up to venture models for achieving greater efficiency in their activities.

We can find the useful suggestions among the business methods on how to reduce costs in maintaining buildings and providing support services. However, efficiency is not a very useful guide on teaching and research. The ways according which the markets function are not always useful in attempts to improve the work of research universities.

The high risk lies in a fact that companies can influence the results of research Bok, More troubling is the multitude of cases where pharmaceutical companies are trying to suppress unwanted results that were identified by university researchers Bok, Testing drugs for pharmaceutical companies is not the only example of high-risk research. Nutritionists who are investigating the effects of certain foods on human health can reduce the chances of entire companies, the way epidemiologists changed the lives of tobacco producers and demonstrated a link between cigarettes and cancer.

Scientists that are working on environment and assess the impact of exhaust gases can bring to release the results which lead to extremely costly regulations for manufacturers. Researchers who study the existence of global warming could drastically alter the future of the energy industry Bok, The most obvious danger is that researchers who receive money from the companies for their research can be under the influence of that company. They do not need to deliberately change their results of research in order to keep the favor of the company's sponsors.

However, when you have received such support, it can be a subtle way to influence you, when deciding on how to draft conclusions, how much to highlight the qualifications and contrary interpretations or whether to mention the potential but unproven new risks Bok, It has been the case that more and more scientists are becoming businessmen rather than remaining scientists. Due to the process of commercialization of knowledge, triggered by global trends, scientific truth that we have spoken about becomes less important than economic success. The ethics loses appeal in relation to politics and business.

This is confirmed by the evidence of that fact, that the ethics, where it exists, is taught and referred to a business ethics. The traditional ethics was such forms of unity. Nevertheless, there is still faith in the ability of humanity. There is a measure of that that is human that we cannot change, but only lose Valjan, : Colin Crouch's attitude from Postdemocracy is congruent with our experience that democracy is going through a period of significant paradox.

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In the post-socialist transition countries it is widely believed that globalization imposes itself on the consumerist culture of egocentric consumer who gets promoted on a wave of theft predatory privatization and environmental degradation. When the masses have the opportunity to actively participate in defining priorities of public life, the democracy is making a progress. But the question, which refers to the paradox of democracyas well, is that the masses have the necessary knowledge to understand the priorities to establish a healthy democratic society.

The experience of former Yugoslavian countries that are now in transit is negative. It claims that the newly-ethnic democracy, is in fact, only a formal democracy. They encourage discrimination, alienation between people, and various forms of deviant and criminal behavior. Lack of transparency has become a synonym for the transition and privatization.

Such democracy is not a true democracy, but pre-democracy. They reduce and cripple the human creative potential. They reduce the plurality of human identity to a single - "killer identity" Maalouf, Questions of identity, essentially conceived identity, which in post-socialist societies, over the last 20 years imposed as the most important existential questions - questions were false. These issues are suitable for manipulating the masses. It is a well known fact that the masses are generally more prone to cheering than reading the critical literature on the manipulation of the mind, will and emotions, manipulation of needs and desires and the manipulation of collective and personal identities.

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Guy Debord talks about the type of "integrated spectacle" as a stage in which the West is a postindustrial, and postmodern society. Model of integrated spectacle, as the logic that leads to cultural practices of consumption, unites the two types of spectacles that have preceded him. The first is the concentrated spectacle, marked by dictatorial totalitarian ideology of a dictatorial type, whether it is a Nazi or Stalinist style, and the other is diffuse spectacle, the so-called Americanization of the world on principles of an intrusive market offer of competitive goods and services Debord, : When a society which proclaims democracy comes to the level of the integrated spectacle, it seems as if fragile achieving perfection is considered everywhere.

Therefore, no longer is it exposed to attacks, because it is fragile and cannot be attacked any more and also it seems to be perfect, as no society has ever been. This society is fragile because it is very difficult to manage their hazardous technological expansion.

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However, such a society is also quite appropriate to rule the world. The evidence of this is that those who aspire to power want to rule it exactly as it is, by the same procedures and keep it just as it was. For the first time in modern Europe, no party or faction is no longer trying to pretend to make any changes. No one can criticize the goods Debord, : Giorgio Agamben adds to this diagnosis, when talking about the "decadence of modern democracy and its gradual convergence towards the totalitarian states in postdemocratic society of the spectacle" Agamben, : Colin Crouch also believes that the more we move towards the postdemocratic sex, the more this explains the widespread feeling of disillusionment and dissatisfaction with the level of participation among the political class and the masses of citizens.

While the framework of democracy remain fully in force, politics and government are increasingly rolling back into the hands of the privileged elite in a way that is typical for pedemocratic period. An important result of this process is the growing weakness of the ideals of equality Crouch, : A large number of people in democratic regimes, and an even larger number in non-democratic regimes, suffers an enormous amount of pain while living in misery, poverty and hopelessness.

It is the living, everyday paradox of so-called developed democracy and ethnic democracy, which mark most of the countries in transit. Finally, "if we go back to the beginning, we still do not know what democracy means, or what democracy is. For democracy is not yet presented, it has not yet been proved, it is to come" Derrida, : The question is how to set free the opportunities for true, global democracy. The need for an answer to what is so urgent that it cannot wait any longer for an answer may cause blockage of opinion.

If you do not know what globalization is, then you cannot be sure what the global democracy is either. Who is the true subject of the global democracy?

New Perspectives in a Sociology of the World-System

Is it a working man who works, one that earns his bread by labouring with his own hands? Or is it a man who does not work, because the work, the very concept of work, seems to have become obsolete - insufficient? What if the global democracy is not an appropriate subject? What if the fascinating progress of micro-computer technology, biotechnology and robotics, and man has made democracy insufficient in an irreversible way?

What if Rifkin and Derrida were right to speak about our posthuman future, for instance, to talk about the different micro-information revolution and the revolution in robotics, that is actually happening. Rifkin's book 'The End of Work', creates a separate place for what he calls the "division of knowledge" and that way referring to the change that is underway. Derrida goes even further than that. He is interested in the problem of consumer culture, the loss of meaningful work, and culture of idleness.

Derrida connects the problem of "the end of work" to "globalization", "mondialisation". He does so in the context of the transformation of the university and the transformation of the very idea of knowledge, which disrupts any stable notion of knowledge, as well as in the context of future social sciences, which could happen tomorrow. Thus, in the case of the "end of work" and in the case of the "globalization", which are closely linked, Derrida emphasizes the need to distinguish between extensive and firmly set phenomenon which we under under these words on one hand, and between the non-conceptual use of the word, on the other hand.

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Derrida argues that "renewed and revised idea of the "human rights" and the institutions of the legal term crimes against humanity" shape the vision and mondialisation of the international law for which it is assumed to watch over this idea. Derrida kept the French word "mondialisation", in terms of "globalization", a reference to preserve the "world" "monde" [World, Welt, Mundus, which is neither globe nor cosmos. The notion of man is, at the same time, necessary but is, still, always problematic However, in order to make these debates critical or deconstructive, in what regards the question of history and truth in relation to the question about man, human distinctiveness, human rights, crimes against humanity, etc.

Wallerstein also considered that the first thing you should do is completely delete the category of social sciences from the head, which the legacy of the existing world system has left to us and which has been an obstacle not only on the way to analyse current realities but also when it comes to creating possible alternatives to it. The first step is to understand that there are multiple temporalities, a multiple spectrum of universalism and particularism. However, it is necessary to do much more than simply accept that they exist.

We must begin to discover how they fit together and what is the optimum combination and in what circumstances.

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Davies, E. According to Sim, fundamentalism has replaced communism in a form of a ghosts that haunts the conscience of the West Sim, : The process of incorporation creates frontiers or boundaries of the world-system. The first global financial crisis of the 21st century confirmed that we are in the midst of chaotic period. In a positive development, it can be counted as the world's community in science, education and various areas of civil society, and the negative aspect is the "phenomenon of the world's risk-prone society" Beck,

This is a serious plan of reconstruction for our system of knowledge. In this opening, future-oriented context asking an autoreferential question who we are, when talking about globalization, when speaking to each other , Wallersten believes that "we need to focus our students to think about the fundamental epistemological issues" Wallerstein, : Unfortunately, as Wallersten claims, "we are all just talking about globalization - regardless of political affiliation, as if this concept is a far more then just a passing rhetorical device for continuing conflict within the capitalist world economy, which is unauthorized and excessively used.

This is the dust that we had thrown in our eyes. The endless litany on ethnic violence, for which not only sociologists are responsible but also activists fighting for human rights, and that also is the dust that we had thrown in our eyes. I will not deny that the ethnic violence is a horrific and frightening reality, but I want to point out that it is obviously not the domain of some other people who are less happy, less intelligent, less civilized. It is an absolutely normal result of deep and growing inequality in our world system Social science has not offered us a useful tool for analyzing what is happening in the world system since the th year" Wallerstein, : This internationally recognized, a longtime researcher of the world system, proves that the world economy is in structural crisis and that we are in the midst of chaotic period.

He believes that we are in the period of bifurcation, and that by midst century, not only will our present world system cease to exist this, but he predicts that a new one will generate Wallerstein, : Attali Attali, : 7 offered a simple diagnosis of the present: market forces take over the planet.

1. Introduction

Scholars of different schools have extensively analyzed world systems as networks of communication under the fashionable heading `globalization. Borderlines In A Globalized World: New Perspectives in a Sociology of the World- System (Social Indicators Research Series) Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st.

If this development continues until the end, it is anticipated that the money will remove anything that might hurt, and will even gradually destroy the country, including the United States. We shall experience the decline in U. Lastly, when it gets to rule over the world, the market will educate an entity called hyperimperialism , which will be intangible and planetary, which will create market value and the new alienation, extreme wealth and poverty; the nature will be strictly divided, it will all be privatized, including the army, police and legal system.

The man himself will perform the intervention of plastic surgery, after which he himself will become an artifact of the standard sales, intended for consumers who have also become artifacts. After becoming unnecessary to his creations, the man will disappear. Although mankind has withdrawn before such a future and violently opposed to globalization, before it releases of all of its earlier alienation, it will fall into a series of regressive and destructive wars, it will used the weapons unthinkable for us today, confronting the states, religious groups, terrorist units and private pirates.

Attali called this war a hyperconflict, and believes that such a war could lead to the extinction of mankind. There is, however, more optimistic scenario. If the globalization can be controlled and accepted, if the market could be limited without being lifted, if democracy could have planetary dimensions and still remain concrete, if the domination of one empire could be prevented, only then will open up a new infinity of freedom, responsibility, dignity, overcoming and respect for another. This period is called hyperdemocracy Attali, : 8. The first global financial crisis of the 21st century confirmed that we are in the midst of chaotic period.

The crisis was initially detected in the U. This crisis, in It is a widespread belief that the global financial crisis is not just financial, but also moral and political and environmental, etc. This global crisis has additionally burdened the processes of globalization, transition and democracy. After the terrible experience of the global crisis, many believe that the current crisis will not prevail: if economic and financial information are not distributed equally and simultaneously available to everyone, if financial markets that are ipso facto - world markets are not balanced by global rule of law and thus cease to be financial casino, if bank interest does not become "modest and boring again which was supposed to be the case , if there is not an established global and real surveillance of the risk, if the system of personal income is not revised,"if we do not separate the market and banking activities," "if we do not introduce an obligation of risk-taking for the one that imposes on others," "unless we turn to larger, environmentally sustainable work on a global level, as it is already does in some countries" Attali, It has been suggested that we should consider replacing the banking supervision at the state level by banking supervision at EU level, because the supervisory failure was caused by mutual competition of national authority and supervision requires a united EU authority Tabellini, Analysis of the current global economic crisis shows that this crisis began with the increased losses that turned into a crisis in U.

There are many macro and micro economic causes of the crisis. We should let experts explain to the general public — based on the background of a society of knowledge or the new knowledge-based economy in other words - the meanings of key terms which explain the causes of the crisis, such as for instance: ignorance, bad judgments, speculation, creating bubbles, credito mania strategy at which the old loans are repayable by new loans , bad practice on the border of negligence, trusting to wrong people from credit rating agencies, excessive extravagance, incompetence, greed for quick wealth.

It seems that there is a multitude of evidence that there is no organic link between capitalism cognitive capitalism and democracy, though, in the dominant political rhetoric, these two concepts are treated almost like Siamese twins Hobsbawm, : The global economic crisis, population growth, resource consumption, environmental pollution, mass extinction of species, and ontological uncertainty, and new security risks - these are all the phenomena related to globalization.

That does not mean that we have listed it all. What determines initial definition as globalization, is a subject to subsequent changes based on different experiences. Many definitions have been suggested for the start of globalization. There are only a few that have declared its end. Faced with that kind of threat, our collective ideology has launched a cover-up mechanisms and self-deception, including the direct will to ignorance, 'it is the general pattern of vulnerable human societies: instead focusing on the crisis, while declining, they are becoming more and more blinded. This time, the apocalyptic tone in philosophy and theology of liberation, became very close.

Zizek believes that the apocalypse is characterised by the special weather mode, which is clearly opposed to the other two main modes - traditional circular time which is established and governed by the principles of the universe, and reflects the natural and celestial order, as the time format in which microcosm and macrocosm resonate harmoniously in the second one and the straight line modern time as a time of gradual progress and development is an apocalyptic time 'time of the end of time', 'time of an emergency', when we should get prepared for the end that is closer.

There are three variants of apocalyptism: Christian-fundamentalist, new age and techno-digital-posthumous apocalyptism. Although sharing the basic idea that humanity is approaching the zero point of radical transformation, their ontologies differ radically: the techno-digital apocalyptism whose main representative is Ray Kurzweil moves within the boundaries of scientific naturalism and, at the level of evolution of human kind, recognizes the contours of the conversion of people in 'post-human beings'; new age apocalyptism gives spiritualist reversal to the conversion, interpreting it as a shift from one mode of 'cosmic consciousness' to another usually from the modern dualistic-mechanistic attitude to an attitude of a holistic immersion ; Ultimately, the Christian fundamentalists read the apocalypse in the strictly biblical terms, ie, seek and find in the modern world of wonders to be closer to the final battle between Christ and Antichrist, and a critical turning point inevitably awaits us.

Globalization is a metaphor for different borderstructures, new borderlines, and conditions of membership, which emerge in a global world-system. As a world-system expands it incorporates new territories and new peoples. The process of incorporation creates frontiers or boundaries of the world-system. These frontiers or boundary zones are the locus of resistance to incorporation, ethnogenesis, ethnic transformation, and ethnocide.

Passar bra ihop. Logical Form and Language Gerhard Preyer. Contextualism in Philosophy Gerhard Preyer. Globalization is not a homogenization of all social life on earth. It is a heterogeneous process that connects the global and the local on different levels. To understand these contemporary developments this book employs innovative concepts, strategies of research, and explanations.

Globalization is a metaphor for different borderstructures, new borderlines, and conditions of membership, which emerge in a global world-system. As a world-system expands it incorporates new territories and new peoples. The process of incorporation creates frontiers or boundaries of the world-system. These frontiers or boundary zones are the locus of resistance to incorporation, ethnogenesis, ethnic transformation, and ethnocide.