But why so often is narrative used in place of good data in impact claims? There are at least two reasons. The first is well-known: a lack of understanding of causal effects, or in some cases, an unwillingness to submit a program to rigorous evaluation. The second is more interesting: a good narrative soundly beats even the best data. The reason is that the human brain has difficulty connecting emotionally with data, even an expert analysis of data. And it is emotion that typically produces the motivation necessary to elicit active response.
This is unfortunate news for development economists, but has been demonstrated by psychologist Paul Slovic in a series of papers , , to which he ascribes the term, psychic numbing, for the way in which people behaviorally ignore data overload. In these studies he and co-authors demonstrate that people generate sympathy toward an identifiable victim of poverty or war with whom they are more able to identify, but fail to generate sympathy toward statistical victims.
As a result, even the most convincing analysis of data often fails to create change. Half the subjects received a message with factual information taken from the Save the Children website describing poverty conditions for millions of affected individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa the statistical victim.
The other told the story of one impoverished girl in Mali and showed her picture an identifiable victim. The researchers embodied a cross treatment, in which they presented half the subjects of each of the previous two treatments with the following text:. This research shows that people typically react more strongly to specific people who have problems than to statistics about people with problems.
The result, as seen in the figure, was that subjects dramatically decreased giving to the identifiable victim, but unfortunately gave little more to the statistical victim. Narrative, and the personalization of truth in the broader sense, appears to influence behavior more strongly than even very convincing data. Consider the foot-dragging by many in instituting change in the face of mountains of data supporting human impact on global climate change. Frankly, climate change needs a Crying Indian because narrative represents a tremendously powerful force for collective action for good, or for ill.
Narrative has displayed considerable power to create vigorous movements in microeconomic development. The number of clients served by microfinance grew from 13 million to over million between and —not because researchers had carefully demonstrated positive impacts—but largely due to the wide appeal of a compelling narrative of entrepreneurialism among the poor, buoyed by thousands of inspiring anecdotes.
Everyone embraced this narrative, on the left, the right, the center.
Recently RCT impact data has contributed to a waning enthusiasm for microfinance, but arguably no more so than narratives of over-indebtedness and abusive threats by microfinance debt collectors. Narrative is also a powerful vehicle for communicating esoteric concepts. Indeed the tremendous impact of these models on the way we think about economic life may stem from their ability to harness story to convey abstract truth.
Reduced solar irradiance such as during the MM and Dalton Minimum, is correlated with the negative shift of the North Atlantic Oscillation NAO index leading to enhance north easterly wind which results into cooling of Europe, whereas enhanced solar irradiance is correlated with positive NAO index Singh et al. The year Solar Cycle and year Magnetic Cycle will continue to unfold, unhindered, into the foreseeable future; this periodicity was first discovered by H.
Cosmic Rays are thought to induce cloud formation in the lower atmosphere 8 and charge-up lightning strikes, thereby impacting regional temperatures.
An important aspect of geoeffective CMEs is how large of a Forbush decrease drop in galactic cosmic radiation they produce. Tony Phillips wrote that. Magnetic fields deflect charged particles, so when a CME sweeps past Earth, it also sweeps away many of the electrically-charged cosmic rays that would otherwise strike our planet. A geomagnetic storm induced blackout was the case in , after a large Earth-directed solar flare occurred on Friday, 10 March, which reached the Earth on Monday, 13 March We know for a fact that extreme geomagnetic storms can induce ground currents that will affect all of sorts of sensitive electronics.
There are a wide variety of effects that Space Weather exerts on the electricity of the brain, heart and central nervous system inside of our own bodies. The Schumann Resonances are easily detectable on any planet on which lightning takes place, and so far the SR signals have been detected on Venus, Mars, Titan, Jupiter and Saturn. It is apparent that disruptions in the Schumann Resonances via external factors, such as natural variations in Space Weather intensity, can have a profound impact on the physiological and psychological health of an organism. The primary EEG bands are: Delta 0.
Cherry had collected and conducted research showing that the effects to human health via solar and geomagnetic activity S-GMA are biophysically possible through changes in Schumann Resonance intensity. The effects include,.
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Many occupational studies have found that exposure to ELF fields between Melatonin is a potent anti-oxidant with receptors in every major organ, and it is released from the pineal gland when the natural boundary of light is missing. Previous research shows that geomagnetic variations of a solar origin have been correlated with enhanced anxiety, sleep disturbances, altered moods, and greater incidences of psychiatric admissions Persinger, There have been numerous papers that explore even more connections between human health and energy from space.
Infant mortality, suicide, traffic accidents, crime rates, and numerous other significant events and human conditions have been statistically matched with fluxes in solar and cosmic energy.
Temporal patterns of happiness and information in a global social network: Hedonometrics and twitter. External link. American Association for the Advancement of Science; ;3: e A Nature Research Journal. Contest and Display. This result supports the suggestion that watching television is not only affected by weather and program broadcast but also by their mutual interplay. Skiena, S.
Although this field of study is by no means new, it is just now becoming accepted, understood, and investigated in a serious manner.