Transport in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structures: Mobile Ions Effects on the Oxide Properties

Transport in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structures
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The same effect is observed for the doped sensor solid blue line with an additional overshoot, marked with a circle, right after every gate bias step, followed by a relaxation effect. One possible explanation for this behaviour can be the following: a positive gate bias pushes the lithium cations down, i. With the abundance of electrons, the surface coverage with oxygen anions increases over time Sauerwald et al. The opposite happens for negative gate biases: lithium cations partly bind electrons close to the surface, resulting in a decreasing oxygen surface coverage and an increasing current.

The parameter t 0 is the starting point of the fit in time. This would, at the same time, explain the lower transconductance, i. Ammonia was selected as a model gas to investigate the influence of the gate bias: it is one of the most studied gases for SiC-FETs in particular and was shown to interact well with WO 3 as a sensing material Wang et al. Both sensors exhibit a clearly concentration-dependent response. It has been reported that the threshold voltage of these FET devices may vary within the same batch, influencing the sensitivity baseline Andersson et al.

In contrast, the doped sensor's response is strongly influenced by the gate bias. These findings fit the explanation given in Sect. Fogelberg et al. For metal-oxide sensors, a high oxygen coverage, achieved by quick temperature changes, results in a highly sensitive state Baur et al. The increase in response at a positive gate bias is consistent with the expected increased catalytic activity due to the removal of lithium cations from the catalytic sites Katsaounis, However, lithium-doped tungsten oxide as a mixed conductor has additional effects compared to classical EPOC catalysts, which are pure ionic conductors.

The most important difference is that the electron density in tungsten oxide is increased by lithium doping as well Niklasson and Granqvist, In the surface state trapping model this leads to an increase in surface oxygen Ding et al. This increase in oxygen coverage is presumably the reason for the higher sensitivity of the doped sensors. A second pair of sensors from a second production batch was tested with similar and different concentrations and gate biases to verify the doping effect. The results are shown in Figs. S3 and S4 in the Supplement. The distribution and orientation of crystalline phases can be adjusted by heat treatment during the deposition.

This ordered layer was deposited as the top-most layer of the dielectric stack of a SiC-FET and the effect of Li doping of this layer on the sensor response was studied. This effect, presumably caused by electrochemical polarization, can be utilized to boost the effect of GBCO as demonstrated by ammonia tests. We could demonstrate that ionic polarization has a large impact on the sensor characteristics and that it can be utilized to boost the sensor's sensitivity.

Furthermore, the ionic polarization increases the impact of gate bias variation on the sensor signal. Therefore, we expect that this method can result in enhanced performance of GBCO and, consequently, selectivity. MR carried out all other measurements and did most of the evaluation. JP performed the XRD data evaluation.

MR wrote the manuscript. The authors want to thank the technical support of the Center of Microscopy and Nanotechnology of the University of Oulu. We have received support for scientific exchange from the European Cooperation in Science and Technology and support for Open Access Publishing from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and Saarland University. This paper was edited by Albert Romano-Rodriguez and reviewed by two anonymous referees. Andersson, M. Baserga, A. Bastuck, M. Baur, T. Berggren, L. Energy Mater. Bur, C. Cazzanelli, E. Solid State Chem. Ding, J. Eason, R. Eriksson, M. Fogelberg, J.

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A vertical spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor spin MOSFET is a promising low-power device for the post scaling era. We find that the electric field effect on indirect tunneling via defect states in the GaAs channel layer is responsible for the large I DS modulation. This result mainly originates from the electric field modulation of the magnetic anisotropy of the GaMnAs ferromagnetic electrodes as well as the potential modulation of the nonmagnetic semiconductor GaAs channel layer. No substantial change in the temperature acceleration factor is observed when poly-Si is replaced with a metal gate, showing that soft optical phonons are not significantly screened by metal gates.

A qualitative argument based on an analogy between remote phonon scattering and high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy HREELS is provided to explain the underlying physics of the observed phenomenon. The phenomenon was explained by the coexistence of a electron variable range hopping and a hole Fowler-Nordheim FN tunnelling. Negative bias-and-temperature stress-assisted activation of oxygen-vacancy hole traps in 4H-silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Ettisserry, D. Assessment of radiation exposure in dental cone-beam computerized tomography with the use of metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor MOSFET dosimeters and Monte Carlo simulations.

Organ dose measurements were performed using 20 MOSFET dosimeters that were embedded in the 8 most radiosensitive organs in the maxillofacial and neck area.

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Minor vertical changes in the positioning of the phantom had a substantial affect on the overall effective dose. All rights reserved. Electronic systems are required to operate under extreme temperatures in NASA planetary exploration and deep space missions. Electronics on-board spacecraft must also tolerate thermal cycling between extreme temperatures.

Thermal management means are usually included in today s spacecraft systems to provide adequate temperature for proper operation of the electronics. These measures, which may include heating elements, heat pipes, radiators, etc.

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Electronic parts and circuits capable of withstanding and operating under extreme temperatures would reflect in improvement in system s efficiency, reducing cost, and improving overall reliability. Semiconductor chips based on silicon-on-insulator SOI technology are designed mainly for high temperature applications and find extensive use in terrestrial well-logging fields. Their inherent design offers advantages over silicon devices in terms of reduced leakage currents, less power consumption, faster switching speeds, and good radiation tolerance.

Little is known, however, about their performance at cryogenic temperatures and under wide thermal swings. Experimental investigation on the operation of SOI, N-channel field effect transistors under wide temperature range was reported earlier [1]. This work examines the performance of P-channel devices of these SOI transistors. Table I shows some specifications of this transistor [2].

Comparison of junctionless and inversion-mode p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors in presence of hole-phonon interactions. Junctionless transistors are being considered as one of the alternatives to conventional metal-oxide field-effect transistors. In this work, it is then presented a simulation study of silicon double-gated p-type junctionless transistors compared with its inversion-mode counterpart. The quantum transport problem is solved within the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, whereas hole-phonon interactions are tackled by means of the self-consistent Born approximation.

Our findings show that junctionless transistors should perform as good as a conventional transistor only for ultra-thin channels, with the disadvantage of requiring higher supply voltages in thicker channel configurations. Effect of Al-diffusion-induced positive flatband voltage shift on the electrical characteristics of Al-incorporated high-k metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effective transistor.

We systematically studied what effect Al diffusion from high-k dielectrics had on the flatband voltage Vfb of Al-incorporated high-k gate stacks. An anomalous positive shift fin Vfb with the decreasing equivalent oxide thickness EOT of high-k gate stacks is reported. As the SiO2 interfacial layer is aggressively thinned in Al-incorporated HfxAl1-xOy gate stacks with a metal-gate electrode, the Vfb first lies on the well known linear Vfb-EOT plot and deviates toward the positive-voltage direction Vfb roll-up , followed by shifting toward negative voltage Vfb roll-off.

We demonstrated that the Vfb roll-up behavior remarkably decreases the threshold voltage Vth of p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors p-MOSFETs , and does not cause severe degradation in the characteristics of hole mobility. These results indicate that anomalous positive shift in Vfb, i. Background: Total body irradiation is a protocol used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia in patients prior to their bone marrow transplant. It involves the treatment of the whole body using a large radiation field with extended source-skin distance. Therefore, it is important to measure and monitor the skin dose during the treatment.

The secondary aim was to evaluate the simplicity of use and determine if one system was superior to the other in clinical use. Material and Methods: The measurements involved twelve adult patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the variation was not significant. Effects of plasma-induced charging damage on random telegraph noise in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with SiO2 and high-k gate dielectrics. Drain current vs gate voltage Ids-Vg characteristics were obtained before and after the ICP plasma exposure for the same device.

The presence of created carrier trap sites with PCD was characterized by the time constants for carrier capture and emission. Hunter, Gary W. A report describes the fabrication and testing of nanoscale metal oxide semiconductors MOSs for gas and chemical sensing. This document examines the relationship between processing approaches and resulting sensor behavior.

This is a core question related to a range of applications of nanotechnology and a number of different synthesis methods are discussed: thermal evaporation- condensation TEC , controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed, providing a processing overview to developers of nanotechnology- based systems. The results of a significant amount of testing and comparison are also described.

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The TECsynthesized single-crystal nanowires offer uniform crystal surfaces, resistance to sintering, and their synthesis may be done apart from the substrate. The TECproduced nanowire response is very low, even at the operating temperature of C. In contrast, the electrospun polycrystalline nanofiber response is high, suggesting that junction potentials are superior to a continuous surface depletion layer as a transduction mechanism for chemisorption.

Using a catalyst deposited upon the surface in the form of nanoparticles yields dramatic gains in sensitivity for both nanostructured, one-dimensional forms. For the nanowire materials, the response magnitude and response rate uniformly increase with increasing operating temperature. Such changes are interpreted in terms of accelerated surface diffusional processes, yielding greater access to chemisorbed oxygen species and faster dissociative chemisorption, respectively. Regardless of operating temperature, sensitivity of the nanofibers is a factor of 10 to greater than that of nanowires with the same catalyst for the same test condition.

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In summary, nanostructure appears critical to governing the reactivity, as measured by electrical. CMOS array design automation techniques. A low cost, quick turnaround technique for generating custom metal oxide semiconductor arrays using the standard cell approach was developed, implemented, tested and validated. Basic cell design topology and guidelines are defined based on an extensive analysis that includes circuit, layout, process, array topology and required performance considerations particularly high circuit speed.

Multilevel metallization method for fabricating a metal oxide semiconductor device. An improved method is described of constructing a metal oxide semiconductor device having multiple layers of metal deposited by dc magnetron sputtering at low dc voltages and low substrate temperatures.

The method provides multilevel interconnections and cross over between individual circuit elements in integrated circuits without significantly reducing the reliability or seriously affecting the yield. Positron studies of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures. Positron annihilation spectroscopy provides a new probe to study the properties of interface traps in metal-oxide semiconductors MOS.

Using positrons, we have examined the behavior of the interface traps as a function of gate bias. We propose a simple model to explain the positron annihilation spectra from the interface region of a MOS capacitor. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics.

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The highly controllable activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels using ionic liquid gating at room temperature is reported. Lee, A. If necessary, the pacemaker can be shielded or moved to a site which can be shielded before institution of radiation therapy. Add to Basket. Add co-authors Co-authors.

The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable.

Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors TFTs can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed.

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Transport in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structures. Mobile Ions Effects on the Oxide Properties. Authors: Bentarzi, Hamid. Free Preview. Reviews. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Transport in Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Structures: Mobile Ions Effects on the Oxide Properties | This book focuses on the.

Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown.

Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor -based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In particular. The lateral photovoltaic effect LPE can be used in position-sensitive detectors to detect very small displacements due to its output of lateral photovoltage changing linearly with light spot position. In this review, we will summarize some of our recent works regarding LPE in metal-semiconductor and metal-oxide-semiconductor structures, and give a theoretical model of LPE in these two structures.

Metal-oxide-semiconductor devices using Ga2O3 dielectrics on n-type GaN. We demonstrated the performance of the resultant metal-oxide-semiconductor devices based on the grown Ga2O3 layer. An extremely low reverse leakage current of pA was achieved when devices operated at V.

Furthermore, high forward and reverse breakdown electric fields of 2. Using a photoassisted current-voltage method, a low interface state density of 2. The varactor devices permit formation of inversion layers, so that they may be applied for the fabrication of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Single-photon imaging in complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. This paper describes the basics of single-photon counting in complementary metal oxide semiconductors , through single-photon avalanche diodes SPADs , and the making of miniaturized pixels with photon-counting capability based on SPADs.

Some applications, which may take advantage of SPAD image sensors, are outlined, such as fluorescence-based microscopy, three-dimensional time-of-flight imaging and biomedical imaging, to name just a few. The paper focuses on architectures that are best suited to those applications and the trade-offs they generate. In this context, architectures are described that efficiently collect the output of single pixels when designed in large arrays. Off-chip readout circuit requirements are described for a variety of applications in physics, medicine and the life sciences. Owing to the dynamic nature of SPADs, designs featuring a large number of SPADs require careful analysis of the target application for an optimal use of silicon real estate and of limited readout bandwidth.

The paper also describes the main trade-offs involved in architecting such chips and the solutions adopted with focus on scalability and miniaturization. Printing Peptide arrays with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor chip. Based on this analysis, we describe a novel peptide array synthesis method with a microelectronic chip printer.

By means of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor chip, charged bioparticles can be patterned on its surface. The bioparticles serve as vehicles to transfer molecule monomers to specific synthesis spots. Afterwards, the patterned chip surface serves as a printing head to transfer the particle pattern from its surface to a synthesis substrate. We conducted a series of proof-of-principle experiments to synthesize high-density peptide arrays.

Our solid phase synthesis approach is based on the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl protection group strategy. After melting the particles, embedded monomers diffuse to the surface and participate in the coupling reaction to the surface. The method demonstrated herein can be easily extended to the synthesis of more complicated artificial molecules by using bioparticles with artificial molecular building blocks. The possibility of synthesizing artificial peptides was also shown in an experiment in which we patterned biotin particles in a high-density array format.

These results open the road to the development of peptide-based functional modules for diverse applications in biotechnology. Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. Three-dimensional 3D , multi-transistor-layer, integrated circuits represent an important technological pursuit promising advantages in integration density, operation speed, and power consumption compared with 2D circuits. The DC voltage output V out versus input V in response of vertically interconnected CMOS inverters showed sharp switching at close to the ideal value of one-half the supply voltage and, moreover, exhibited substantial DC gain of approximately The gain and the rail-to-rail output switching are consistent with the large noise margin and minimal static power consumption of CMOS.

Significantly, measurements of these circuits demonstrated stable, self-sustained oscillations with a maximum frequency of MHz, which represents the highest-frequency integrated circuit based on chemically synthesized nanoscale materials. These results highlight the flexibility of bottom-up assembly of distinct nanoscale materials and suggest substantial promise for 3D integrated circuits. Silicon carbide: A unique platform for metal-oxide-semiconductor physics. A sustainable energy future requires power electronics that can enable significantly higher efficiencies in the generation, distribution, and usage of electrical energy.

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Silicon carbide 4H-SiC is one of the most technologically advanced wide bandgap semiconductor that can outperform conventional silicon in terms of power handling, maximum operating temperature, and power conversion efficiency in power modules. Specifically, major initiatives are under way to improve the inversion channel mobility and gate oxide stability in order to further reduce the on-resistance and enhance the gate reliability.

Here we review research on the SiC MOS physics and technology, including its brief history, the state-of-art, and the latest progress in this field. We focus on the two main scientific problems, namely, low channel mobility and bias temperature instability. The possible mechanisms behind these issues are discussed at the device physics level as well as the atomic scale, with the support of published physical analysis and theoretical studies results.

Some of the most exciting recent progress in interface engineering for improving the channel mobility and fundamental understanding of channel transport is reviewed. Prediction of the thermal annealing of thick oxide metal-oxide-semiconductor dosimeters irradiated in a harsh radiation environment. Can p-channel tunnel field-effect transistors perform as good as n-channel? We show that bulk semiconductor materials do not allow perfectly complementary p- and n-channel tunnel field-effect transistors TFETs , due to the presence of a heavy-hole band.

When tunneling in p-TFETs is oriented towards the gate-dielectric, field-induced quantum confinement results in a highest-energy subband which is heavy-hole like. We further show that even if the phonon-assisted current would be negligible, the build-up of a heavy-hole-based inversion layer prevents efficient ballistic tunneling, especially at low supply voltages. For p-TFET, a strongly confined n-i-p or n-p-i-p configuration is therefore recommended, as well as a tensily strained line-tunneling configuration.

Comparative analysis of breakdown mechanism in thin SiO2 oxide films in metal-oxide-semiconductor structures under the action of heavy charged particles and a pulsed voltage.

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Regularities in the breakdown of thin SiO2 oxide films in metal-oxide-semiconductors structures of power field-effect transistors under the action of single heavy charged particles and a pulsed voltage are studied experimentally. Using a phenomenological approach, we carry out comparative analysis of physical mechanisms and energy criteria of the SiO2 breakdown in extreme conditions of excitation of the electron subsystem in the subpicosecond time range.

Ambient condition bias stress stability of vanadium IV oxide phthalocyanine based p-channel organic field-effect transistors. High bias-stress stability and low threshold voltage V th shift under ambient conditions are highly desirable for practical applications of organic field-effect transistors OFETs. The devices with top contact gold Au electrodes exhibit excellent p-channel behavior with a moderate hole mobility for the HMDS-treated device.

The inferior performance of the device with bare SiO2 is traced to the charge trapping at the voids in the inter-grain region of the films, while it is almost negligible for the HMDS-treated case, as confirmed from the AFM and XRD analyses. It is believed that HMDS treatment provides an excellent interface with a low density of traps and passivates the dangling bonds, which improve the charge transport characteristics. Also, the surface morphology of the VOPc film clearly influences the device performance. A silicon-on-insulator complementary- metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible flexible electronics technology.

This paper reports a simple flexible electronics technology that is compatible with silicon-on-insulator SOI complementary- metal-oxide-semiconductor CMOS processes. Compared with existing technologies such as direct fabrication on flexible substrates and transfer printing, the main advantage of this technology is its post-SOI-CMOS compatibility.

Consequently, high-performance and high-density CMOS circuits can be first fabricated on SOI wafers using commercial foundry and then be integrated into flexible substrates. The yield is also improved by eliminating the transfer printing step.

XII 7.2 formation of oxides

Furthermore, this technology allows the integration of various sensors and microfluidic devices. Positron annihilation studies in the field induced depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures. Asoka-Kumar, P. The centroid shifts of positron annihilation spectra are reported from the depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS capacitors at room temperature and at 35 K.

The centroid shift measurement can be explained using the variation of the electric field strength and depletion layer thickness as a function of the applied gate bias. An estimate for the relevant MOS quantities is obtained by fitting the centroid shift versus beam energy data with a steady-state diffusion-annihilation equation and a derivative-gaussian positron implantation profile.

Inadequacy of the present analysis scheme is evident from the derived quantities and alternate methods are required for better predictions. The experimental results, from two experimental scenarios, showing the extraction of NBTI-induced shifts caused by interface- and oxide-trap increases are also presented.

In the first scenario, all stresses are performed on the same transistor. It exhibits an artifact value of exponent n. In the second scenario, each voltage stress is applied only on one transistor. Its results show an average n of 0. In this work we explore the thermal stability of sputter-deposited Ta-rich Ta-Pt alloys. The effects of group III and V impurities on their work function are also investigated. The Ta content ranges from 65 to 82 at.

The binding energies of core-level electrons of Ta and Pt are changed due to the intermixing of Ta and Pt, which is evidence that the work function of alloys is changed in metallic alloy systems. Moreover, the incorporation of Pt in Ta film induces poor crystallization and a compound phase of Ta-Pt alloys.

Transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed the absence of a clear grain boundary in Ta-Pt alloys. The diffusion and distribution of impurities in the alloys were studied by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The literature on polar Gallium Nitride GaN surfaces, surface treatments and gate dielectrics relevant to metal oxide semiconductor devices is reviewed.

The significance of the GaN growth technique and growth parameters on the properties of GaN epilayers, the ability to modify GaN surface properties using in situ and ex situ processes and progress on the understanding and performance of GaN metal oxide semiconductor MOS devices are presented and discussed.

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Although a reasonably consistent picture is emerging from focused studies on issues covered in each of these topics, future research can achieve a better understanding of the critical oxide-semiconductor interface by probing the connections between these topics. Promising gate dielectric deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition, which is already accepted by the semiconductor industry for silicon CMOS device fabrication, coupled with more advanced physical and electrical characterization methods will likely accelerate the pace of learning required to develop future GaN-based MOS technology.

The Au-Ga2O3 core-shell nanowires were first synthesized by the reaction of Ga powder, a mediated Au thin layer, and a SiO2 substrate at degrees C. Subsequently, these core-shell nanowires were nitridized in ambient ammonia to form a GaN coating layer at degrees C. The GaN shell is a single crystal, an atomic flat interface between the oxide and semiconductor that ensures that the high quality of the MOS device is achieved.

These novel 1D nitride-based MOS nanowires may have promise as building blocks to the future nitride-based vertical nanodevices. Positive and negative gain exceeding unity magnitude in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors. QW NMOS devices were fabricated using an industrial 45 nm technology node process incorporating ion implanted potential barriers to define a lateral QW in the conduction channel under the gate. While NTC at room temperature arising from transport through gate-controlled QW bound states has been previously established, it was unknown whether the quantum NTC mechanism could support gain magnitude exceeding unity.

Positron annihilation in a metal-oxide semiconductor studied by using a pulsed monoenergetic positron beam. The positron annihilation in a metal-oxide semiconductor was studied by using a pulsed monoenergetic positron beam. Because of their extraordinary structural and electrical properties, two-dimensional materials are currently being pursued for applications such as thin-film transistors and integrated circuit. One of the main challenges that still needs to be overcome for these applications is the fabrication of air-stable transistors with industry-compatible complementary metal oxide semiconductor CMOS technology.

In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a novel high performance air-stable WSe2 CMOS technology with almost ideal voltage transfer characteristic, full logic swing and high noise margin with different supply voltages. Radiation induced failures of complementary metal oxide semiconductor containing pacemakers: a potentially lethal complication.

New multi-programmable pacemakers frequently employ complementary metal oxide semiconductors CMOS. This circuitry appears more sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation when compared to the semiconductor circuits used in older pacemakers. A case of radiation induced runaway pacemaker in a CMOS device is described. Because of this and other recent reports of radiation therapy-induced CMOS type pacemaker failure, these pacemakers should not be irradiated. If necessary, the pacemaker can be shielded or moved to a site which can be shielded before institution of radiation therapy.

Dimensional optimization of nanowire--complementary metal oxide--semiconductor inverter. This study is the first to demonstrate dimensional optimization of nanowire-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization.

Results indicate that optimization depends on both dimensions ratio and digital voltage level Vdd. Gate tunneling current and quantum capacitance in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with graphene gate electrodes. Metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS devices with graphene as the metal gate electrode, silicon dioxide with thicknesses ranging from 5 to 20 nm as the dielectric, and p-type silicon as the semiconductor are fabricated and characterized.

It is found that Fowler-Nordheim F-N tunneling dominates the gate tunneling current in these devices for oxide thicknesses of 10 nm and larger, whereas for devices with 5 nm oxide, direct tunneling starts to play a role in determining the total gate current. Furthermore, the temperature dependences of the F-N tunneling current for the 10 nm devices are characterized in the temperature range K.

The F-N coefficients and the effective tunneling barrier height are extracted as a function of temperature. It is found that the effective barrier height decreases with increasing temperature, which is in agreement with the results previously reported for conventional MOS devices with polysilicon or metal gate electrodes.

In addition, high frequency capacitance-voltage measurements of these MOS devices are performed, which depict a local capacitance minimum under accumulation for thin oxides. By analyzing the data using numerical calculations based on the modified density of states of graphene in the presence of charged impurities, it is shown that this local minimum is due to the contribution of the quantum capacitance of graphene. Finally, the workfunction of the graphene gate electrode is extracted by determining the flat-band voltage as a function of oxide thickness.

These results show that graphene is a promising candidate as the gate electrode in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. Silicon carbide SiC has always been considered as an excellent material for high temperature and high power devices. Since SiC is the only compound semiconductor whose native oxide is silicon dioxide SiO2 , it puts SiC in a unique position. Although SiC metal oxide semiconductor MOS technology has made significant progress in recent years, there are still a number of issues to be overcome before more commercial SiC devices can enter the market.

In the course of our investigation, we observed fast interface states at semiconductor-dielectric interfaces in SiC MOS capacitors that underwent three different interface passivation processes, such states were detected in the nitrided samples but not observed in PSG-passivated samples. In addition, the effect of mobile ions in the oxide on the response time of interface states has been investigated. New channel materials with high carrier mobility are being investigated as alternatives and have the potential to unlock an era of ultra-low-power and high-speed microelectronic devices. Chief among these new materials is germanium Ge.

This work reviews the two major remaining challenges that Ge based devices must overcome if they are to replace Si as the channel material, namely, heterogeneous integration of Ge on Si substrates, and developing a suitable gate stack. Different Ge device architectures, including surface channel and quantum well configurations, are reviewed.

Finally, state-of-the-art Ge device results and future prospects are also discussed. P-channel differential multiple-time programmable memory cells by laterally coupled floating metal gate fin field-effect transistors. This differential MTP cell stores complementary data in floating gates coupled by a slot contact structure, which make different read currents possible on a single cell. In nanoscale CMOS FinFET logic processes, the gate dielectric layer becomes too thin to retain charges inside floating gates for nonvolatile data storage.

By using a differential architecture, the sensing window of the cell can be extended and maintained by an advanced blanket boost scheme. The charge retention problem in floating gate cells can be improved by periodic restoring lost charges when significant read window narrowing occurs. In addition to high programming efficiency, this p-channel MTP cells also exhibit good cycling endurance as well as disturbance immunity.

The blanket boost scheme can remedy the charge loss problem under thin gate dielectrics. Image sensors are the core components of computer, communication, and consumer electronic products. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor CMOS image sensors have become the mainstay of image-sensing developments, but are prone to leakage current.

To elucidate the relationship between the leakage current and stack architecture, we compare the simulated and measured leakage currents in the elements. Based on the analysis results, we further improve the performance by optimizing the architecture of the film stacks or changing the thin-film material. The material parameters are then corrected to improve the accuracy of the simulation results. The simulated and experimental results confirm a positive correlation between measured leakage current and stress.

This trend is attributed to the structural defects induced by high stress, which generate leakage. Using this relationship, we can change the structure of the thin-film stack to reduce the leakage current and thereby improve the component life and reliability of the CIS components. To begin this abstract, amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors offer the high carrier mobilities and excellent large-area uniformity required for high performance, transparent, flexible electronic devices; however, a critical bottleneck to their widespread implementation is the need to activate these materials at high temperatures which are not compatible with flexible polymer substrates.

The highly controllable activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels using ionic liquid gating at room temperature is reported. Activation is controlled by electric field-induced oxygen migration across the ionic liquid-semiconductor interface. Finally, the first ever example of transparent flexible thin film metal oxide transistor on a polyamide substrate created using this simple technique is demonstrated. Finally, this study demonstrates the potential of field-induced activation as a promising alternative to traditional postdeposition thermal annealing which opens the door to wide scale implementation into flexible electronic applications.

Thermal stability of atomic layer deposited WCxNy electrodes for metal oxide semiconductor devices. This study is a thorough investigation of the chemical, structural, and electrical stability of W based organo-metallic films, grown by atomic layer deposition, for future use as gate electrodes in advanced metal oxide semiconductor structures. In an earlier work, we have shown that high effective work-function 4.