Sometimes called a discursive ontology Hansen, , 17 , it treats language, symbols, discourse, and intersubjective meaning as ontologically fundamental see Klotz and Lynch, , Whereas poststructuralism emphasizes an ontology of things as discourse , a relational ontology focuses on things in relationality.
A third type of ontological intervention comes from emergent ontology.
As a particular iteration of relational ontology Heylighen et al. Employing an emergent ontology at the systemic, but not state, level Wight, , 62—63 , Waltz explains state behavior rather than its ontological connection with the system. In this quantum emergent ontology, the identity of parts cannot be separated from the whole Wendt, , Going beyond these important ontological reflections, I now explore a more specific relational ontology through holographic insights from both quantum physics and traditional Asian thoughts.
Law and Critique, 10 , Section 4. Collected Philosophical Papers A. They intend to accommodate the social nature of individuals, and yet to account fully for the social in terms of individuals see section 3. Greenhalgh, T.
Though the holographic relationship between parts and wholes is not the only type of relationality or the only way of conceptualizing it, holography helps shed light on a specific yet fundamental facet of relational ontology. The holographic principle has been confirmed in quantum theory.
Outside quantum physics, systems theory, and fractal geometry, holographic ideas have existed in many traditional cultures Capra, In China, there exists a strong philosophical tradition of systemic and holistic thinking Liu, , —; Kaptchuk, , 7. Meanwhile, traditional Chinese medical practices such as acupuncture and palmistry are based on similar ideas that various parts of a body such as ears, feet, and hands mirror the structure of the whole body see Liu, , — According to the holographic relational ontology, from the outset a part as a microcosmic whole owes its very existence, identity, and characteristics to its whole.
This ontology highlights the holographic mutual implication and co-emergence between the whole and its parts, a type of relationality existing between, for example, plants and their seeds, chicken and egg, and yin and yang Byrne and Callaghan, , ; Ling, , 96— That the whole is in its parts is best understood in an informational sense considering that the production of holographic photography involves the movement of information.
By nature, information does not belong to or stay in one place; it is to be shared, communicated, and interrelated. In the social world, which cannot be reified as ontologically separate from the natural world, informational interconnectedness depends especially on language, ideas, and discourse. The implication of information of the whole in its parts is what I call holographic transition or holographic emergence. Holographic transition is an ongoing process in which a part, which must have already been holographically emblematic of its whole s , continues to reflect and internalize the information of its evolving whole s , consciously or unconsciously more likely both.
Holographic relations and holographic transition exist in both a spatial and a temporal sense. A part is thus not only a holographic representation of its multiple worlds in spatial terms, but also a reflection of its temporal wholes, meaning that it is a product of its traditional linkages as well as its contemporary spatial entanglements.
Until now, despite increasing attention to relationality in the social sciences and emerging interest in quantum theory in IR Der Derian, ; Wendt, , holographic relationality remains understudied Milovanovic, , 1. Yet, holographic ontology provides a new and exciting way of theorizing IR and doing IR research.
In this spirit, I hope this can help generate further research in this still largely uncharted terrain. First of all, to the extent that international relations contain parts such as states and wholes such as international society and the global economy , their relations are holographic relations.
As such, states or non-state actors for that matter are not fixed or essentialist things with their own intrinsic properties. All states necessarily emerge from, and contain information of, multiple worlds, and in this sense, their relations are not merely inter -national relations or foreign relations. With world politics grounding in a holographic ontology, it is possible and indeed imperative to perceive and practice IR in a more dynamic, holistic, and cooperative way.
But the holographic ontology provides a new perspective on why such dichotomies are fundamentally untenable given their inevitably common holographic entanglements.
This does not mean that all states are like-units Waltz, The world is not an ideal-type holographic system within which each part equally shares the same properties of their holographic whole. Second, insofar as holographic relations in global politics are constituted largely through informational and discursive connections, discourse analysis can help trace the lineage and genealogy of norms and ideas which make global society hang together.
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Thus, in a methodological sense, the holographic relational ontology has much in common with the poststructuralist discursive ontology. Yet, while the latter sees things as constructed by discourse, it says little on the being of discourse itself.
The holographic relational ontology, on the other hand, treats discourse as existing in as well as constitutive of holographic relations. The holographic relational existence of discourse, implied in notions such as discursive formation and intertextuality Merrell, , ; Pitts, , — , can explain why discourse cannot be attributed to a single author and why it and its associated power effect appears at once to be everywhere and nowhere.
Thanks to their holographic ontology, discourse and power go capillary Foucault, , We are a holographic part of space and time, our ontological wholes. Streams of culture have come to India from the West and the East and been absorbed in India, producing the rich and variegated culture which is India today. At the same time, streams of culture have flowed from India to distant parts of Asia. Instead of a teleological process of homogenization, holographic transition is more multifaceted and dynamic. Moreover, scholarly discourses are part and parcel of holographic relations in IR, and rather than merely a neutral analytic tool independent of the world they describe, they are an inherently participatory factor in how holographic relations take shape and evolve.
Consequently, holographic reality is necessarily protean and complex, and our theorizing effort ought to reflect it accordingly. Indeed, I argue that the rise of China is a prime example of how China is being transformed through its ongoing holographic entanglements with the world. With that holographic self-imagination, it was open, for example, to Buddhist influence from India. Under the rule of the Mongols, China was introduced to Islamic and Persian medicine.
In fact, the term China Zhongguo in Chinese is largely absent in traditional Chinese canons. Given that China has always been a holographic part of its changing worlds, it is no longer adequate to cast its contemporary rise merely in terms of change in power balance ; it must also be an ongoing process of holographic transition, emergence, worlding, or enfolding.
The existing literature has made much about a rising China with increasingly global presence Shambaugh, ; Wortzel, To understand China entails considering its global holographic relations.
At first sight, the notion of China as a holographically global state flies in the face of its reputation as a stubbornly Westphalian state, impervious to especially political change hoped by the West Mann, But as noted earlier, holographic transition is never meant to be mere Westernization. Emanating from these extensive relations is not the intensification of two-way transactional flows in trade, investment, people, and ideas between an otherwise static China and the rest of the world, but a China that has been simultaneously transformed in the complex images of its multiple worlds.
It now ranks as the largest trading nation in the world, with its trade as a percentage of gross domestic product GDP at In , FIEs in China accounted for What these figures reveal is not only increased interdependence between the Chinese economy and the world economy, but also the deepening transformation of the former as a holographic part of the expanding global supply chains and production networks Pan, a.
In this process, FIEs and the ideas and norms they represent have played a key role. Consequently, their presence and penetration in China has brought not only higher environmental standards, increased awareness of social corporate responsibility, and modern business management practices to their Chinese partners, but also inappropriate worker relations, corrupted practices and anti-competitive behavior Enright, As the private sectors of the Chinese economy grow, even the Chinese Communist Party CCP , now welcoming private entrepreneurs into its ranks, could not be immune from being holographically affected.
Indeed, the very ideas upon which the CCP was first founded came from Europe. Thus, it is not self-contradictory to claim that China is at once a neoliberal capitalist state, a developmental state, a competition state, a regulatory state, a mercantilist state, and a party-state. Its polymorphousness testifies precisely to the holographic nature of a Chinese state in transition. Such a holographic transition is both enabled by and reinforces the transnational flows of people, ideas, and discourses at the societal level. For instance, between and , more than 4 million Chinese students went overseas to study, and during the same period more than half of them returned Ministry of Education, There were , international students from countries and regions around the world studying in China in Zhang, In , at least , expats were working or living across China Zhou and Elsinga, The city of Yiwu, a globally connected small merchandise hub, is now home to about 10, foreign business people from 85 different countries, working for over 3, foreign trading companies Chen, , Their interests, ideas, and discourses help weave and sustain the holographic networks between China and its worlds.
Shambaugh and Ren , 37, 39 reveal that almost all major schools of IR theory can find echoes in China. A sociology-of-knowledge analysis of such traveling theories may well tell a fascinating story of their holographic entanglements. In opening up a new ontological perspective, this article now turns to a brief examination of why mainstream IR theories, particularly realism and liberalism, need to be rethought.
Analysts from those perspectives continue to see the rise of a Germany-like great power, but the world in which China has been rising has largely moved on from the one in which Nazi Germany emerged. What they fail to adequately appreciate is the whole from which China has emerged is now quite different Wang, Nonetheless, two points are worth noting here. One is that there is some Chinese recognition, at both scholarly and official levels, of the world as a cosmopolitan whole e.
We focus here on the virtual approach, which avoids materializing triples retrieved through mappings and answers the SPARQL queries by translating them into SQL queries over the database.
In this tutorial we will give the audience a gentle introduction to OBDA covering both practical and theoretical aspects. One the practical side, we will illustrate novel challenges for OBDA arising in two large-scale industrial use cases studied in the European project Optique.
On the theoretical side, we will present recent theoretical development underlying these techniques. Ontology-based data integration.