Or at least it leaves it open that it might be European only in the most trivial sense: that it comprises a synthesis of already-identified-as-European attributes. But that simply raises the question of what it is that makes them one and all European.
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His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche. In his Egotism in German Philosophy , Santayana claimed that Nietzsche's whole philosophy was a reaction to Schopenhauer. Santayana wrote that Nietzsche's work was "an emendation of that of Schopenhauer.
The will to live would become the will to dominate; pessimism founded on reflection would become optimism founded on courage; the suspense of the will in contemplation would yield to a more biological account of intelligence and taste; finally in the place of pity and asceticism Schopenhauer's two principles of morals Nietzsche would set up the duty of asserting the will at all costs and being cruelly but beautifully strong.
These points of difference from Schopenhauer cover the whole philosophy of Nietzsche. Nietzsche's works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career. However, in the influential Danish critic Georg Brandes aroused considerable excitement about Nietzsche through a series of lectures he gave at the University of Copenhagen. In the years after Nietzsche's death in , his works became better known, and readers have responded to them in complex and sometimes controversial ways.
He had some following among left-wing Germans in the s; in — German conservatives wanted to ban his work as subversive. During the late 19th century Nietzsche's ideas were commonly associated with anarchist movements and appear to have had influence within them, particularly in France and the United States. Mencken produced the first book on Nietzsche in English in , The Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche , and in a book of translated paragraphs from Nietzsche, increasing knowledge of his philosophy in the United States.
Writer on music Donald Mitchell notes that Gustav Mahler was "attracted to the poetic fire of Zarathustra, but repelled by the intellectual core of its writings. Frederick Delius produced a piece of choral music, A Mass of Life , based on a text of Thus Spoke Zarathustra , while Richard Strauss who also based his Also sprach Zarathustra on the same book , was only interested in finishing "another chapter of symphonic autobiography".
Nietzsche was an early influence on the poetry of Rainer Maria Rilke. Knut Hamsun counted Nietzsche, along with Strindberg and Dostoyevsky, as one of his primary influences. Painter Giovanni Segantini was fascinated by Thus Spoke Zarathustra , and he drew an illustration for the first Italian translation of the book. By World War I , Nietzsche had acquired a reputation as an inspiration for both right-wing German militarism and leftist politics. Gordon  and Martin Buber , who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life".
He also shared Nietzsche's view of tragedy. Adorno  can be seen in the popular Dialectic of Enlightenment. Adorno summed up Nietzsche's philosophy as expressing the "humane in a world in which humanity has become a sham. Nietzsche's growing prominence suffered a severe setback when his works became closely associated with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany.
Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas, although it is not always possible to determine whether they actually read his work. It is debated among scholars whether Hitler read Nietzsche, although if he did his reading of him may not have been extensive.
Mussolini ,   Charles de Gaulle  and Huey P. Newton  read Nietzsche. Richard Nixon read Nietzsche with "curious interest," and his book Beyond Peace might have taken its title from Nietzsche's book Beyond Good and Evil which Nixon read beforehand. A decade after World War II, there was a revival of Nietzsche's philosophical writings thanks to exhaustive translations and analyses by Walter Kaufmann and R. Others, well known philosophers in their own right, wrote commentaries on Nietzsche's philosophy, including Martin Heidegger , who produced a four-volume study, and Lev Shestov , who wrote a book called Dostoyevski, Tolstoy and Nietzsche where he portrays Nietzsche and Dostoyevski as the "thinkers of tragedy".
Camus described Nietzsche as "the only artist to have derived the extreme consequences of an aesthetics of the absurd ". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Nietzsche disambiguation. German philosopher. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche. University of Bonn Leipzig University. Main article: Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Main article: Apollonian and Dionysian.
Main article: Perspectivism. Main article: Master—slave morality. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main articles: God is dead and Nihilism.
Main article: Will to power. Main article: Eternal return. Main article: Library of Friedrich Nietzsche. Main article: Influence and reception of Friedrich Nietzsche. Main article: Friedrich Nietzsche bibliography. See also: List of works about Friedrich Nietzsche. Philosophy portal Germany portal Biography portal.
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