Features Hundreds of alphabetically organized entries on wars, political events, religious and cultural issues, and diplomatic initiatives, as well as in-depth essays on background material, area and regional analyses, and biographical entries An introduction by General Anthony Zinni, USMC Ret , former commander in chief of U.
Central Command A chronologically arranged final volume comprised of primary and contemporary documents with individual introductions A detailed chronology of events Cross-references and books for further reading appended to each entry A bibliography of over books that are the latest in the field Highlights Offers comprehensive coverage detailing social, cultural, religious, political, and military aspects of the Middle East wars Includes recent conflicts such as those in Iraq and Afghanistan Analyzes events from a global, multidisciplinary perspective Offers the insights of contributors who are specialists in Middle East affairs and high-level military personnel who had a hand in setting Middle East policy.
Author Info Spencer C. Tucker, Editor Paul G. Pierpaoli Jr. Kreiser Jr. Yet, during the same four years, Americans North and South went about the business of their everyday lives as best they could. How did they raise and feed their families, earn money, study, pray, and entertain themselves?
On one side was legendary Confederate general Robert E. Lee, formerly a respected U. Army officer and one-time superintendent of West Point. Union forces were, ultimately, led by Ulysses S. Grant, a soldier's soldier who initially doubted his capacity for high command. Their stories are only two that make this monumental conflict so endlessly fascinating.
Sherman brought the Confederacy to its knees and revolutionized modern warfare. Grant initially had no interest in a career in the military, having reluctantly accepted an appointment at West Point largely because of pressure from his father. Despite having little interest in military studies and ranking in the bottom half of his graduating class, Grant became a resilient and aggressive commander, earning a reputation as a general who expected nothing less than "unconditional surrender" from the enemy. Downloadable File.
Louis passengers. After Cuba finally refused to allow the passengers to land and the United States and other Western Hemisphere nations did not offer to take the passengers, the ship returned to Europe. Many of the refugees, however, found themselves living under the dangers of Nazi occupation again when Germany invaded multiple Western Europe nations in May Approximately of the St. Louis passengers were murdered in the Holocaust.
Louis was not the only ship to cross the Atlantic Ocean carrying Jewish refugees during this period of refugee crisis. More than 1, ships carrying nearly , Jewish refugees arrived in New York between March , when Germany annexed Austria, and October , when Germany banned emigration. As the passengers held US visas, they were admitted into the United States as new immigrants. Many Americans had been anticipating world war, but the overwhelming majority wanted to remain neutral rather than see the United States become involved in the war.
Roosevelt warned that even Jewish refugees could become a threat, aiding Nazi Germany in exchange for the lives of loved ones held hostage in Europe. Historians now agree that Jewish refugees posed no security threat to the United States. The FBI warned Americans to be on guard.
The State Department instituted additional restrictions on immigration in , citing national security concerns.
Among these was the announcement that any refugee with close family still in enemy territory would be ineligible for a US immigration visa. American consulates closed in Nazi-occupied territory in July , cutting off many applicants from the US diplomats issuing visas.
At the same time, the State Department announced that all visa applicants had to be approved by a interdepartmental visa review committee in Washington, DC. This decision lengthened the delays for refugees who had managed to make it to southern France or Lisbon, the only places in Europe from which they could still escape. They helped refugees navigate the US immigration system, explained the required paperwork, located potential financial sponsors, purchased ship tickets, and, for those fortunate enough to enter the United States, assisted with Americanization, employment, and housing.
These agencies, both Jewish and non-Jewish though many of the non-Jewish agencies were funded through Jewish philanthropy also provided food, clothing, and medicine for those still in Europe; some relief workers even worked directly in French internment camps.
These relief agencies and the individuals who worked for them operated under tremendous strain. Often, their work involved significant risk. Some of the organizations worked strenuously in public and private to raise money and provide assistance for refugees. Though the majority of Americans continued to oppose intervention in the war, Roosevelt and Congress increasingly began to prepare the country for war. Congress approved the first peacetime draft in American history, which passed just as Roosevelt began an unprecedented campaign for a third term as president.
Lobbying organizations formed within the United States to argue either for either proactive intervention or against involvement in the war. The AFC, with some , members and at least local chapters, encouraged civic engagement, such as letter-writing campaigns to elected officials, and sponsored rallies and speeches throughout the country. The CDAAA staged rallies and performances, took out full-page newspaper ads, and handed out flyers in an effort to gain support for aiding Great Britain.
The next day, the United States declared war on Japan but not on Germany. President Roosevelt was able then to portray war against both Japan and Germany as defensive measures against Axis powers who declared war on the United States first. We are all in it—all the way. Every single man, woman, and child is a partner in the most tremendous undertaking of our American history. We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing work to create content and resources for the Holocaust Encyclopedia.
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Glossary : Full Glossary. Key Facts. Nazi Territorial Conquest German troops entered Austria on March 12, , and, with the enthusiastic support of most of the Austrian population, annexed the country the next day an event known as the Anschluss. Kristallnacht In the evening and early morning of November , , Nazi party leaders unleashed a wave of antisemitic violence across Germany and its newly annexed territories, an event known as Kristallnacht.
Louis On May 13, , the German transatlantic liner St.
Discussion Questions How did leaders, diplomats, and citizens around the world respond to the events of the Holocaust? Article Immigration to the United States — Article The United States and the Holocaust, — Related Links Americans and the Holocaust online exhibition Lesson plans.
Glossary Terms. Critical Thinking Questions Investigate American awareness of the events mentioned here. What pressures and motivations may have affected the responses of citizens?