Services are available across six local health districts:. These health districts provide a range of services to stimulant users within a stepped care framework to match the special needs of each patient. The services offer a therapeutic approach that is person centred, holistic and strengths based. Pathways Goulburn Region Phone: 02 Email: pathwaysgr directionshealth. Pathways Murrumbidgee Phone: 02 Email: pathwaysm directionshealth.
The services are delivering different models, based on the needs of the communities, but with common elements of community based drug and alcohol treatment interventions and assertive outreach.
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Archived from the original on 12 October Retrieved 13 October National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 27 September Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, allowing for an increased intensity and duration of training Therapeutic relatively low doses of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, improve performance on working memory tasks both in individuals with ADHD and in normal subjects At abused relatively high doses, stimulants can interfere with working memory and cognitive control, as will be discussed below.
It is important to recognize, however, that stimulants act not only on working memory function, but also on general levels of arousal and, within the nucleus accumbens, improve the saliency of tasks. Thus, stimulants improve performance on effortful but tedious tasks Child Adolesc. Stimulant misuse appears to occur both for performance enhancement and their euphorogenic effects, the latter being related to the intrinsic properties of the stimulants e.
Although useful in the treatment of ADHD, stimulants are controlled II substances with a history of preclinical and human studies showing potential abuse liability. United Nations Treaty Collection. United Nations. Archived from the original on 31 March Archived from the original on 17 April United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
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December Archived PDF from the original on 2 January Retrieved 6 January Brain Res. Neuroimaging studies have revealed that METH can indeed cause neurodegenerative changes in the brains of human addicts Aron and Paulus, ; Chang et al. These abnormalities include persistent decreases in the levels of dopamine transporters DAT in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the caudate-putamen McCann et al.
The density of serotonin transporters 5-HTT is also decreased in the midbrain, caudate, putamen, hypothalamus, thalamus, the orbitofrontal, temporal, and cingulate cortices of METH-dependent individuals Sekine et al. Neuropsychological studies have detected deficits in attention, working memory, and decision-making in chronic METH addicts There is compelling evidence that the negative neuropsychiatric consequences of METH abuse are due, at least in part, to drug-induced neuropathological changes in the brains of these METH-exposed individuals These include loss of gray matter in the cingulate, limbic, and paralimbic cortices, significant shrinkage of hippocampi, and hypertrophy of white matter Thompson et al.
Elevated choline levels, which are indicative of increased cellular membrane synthesis and turnover are also evident in the frontal gray matter of METH abusers Ernst et al.
Drugs, Inc. Season 4. Episode 1.
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Barrett, Sean P. However, conventional investigative techniques cannot be expected to be effective in revealing the full particulars of such crimes, in view of the circumstances of organized drug-related crime. Illegal drugs abused in Japan ,including stimulants methamphetamine illicitly produced in China, are largely smuggled in from overseas. In fact, alcohol's effects on a given individual's aggressive and violent behavior do not follow simply a monotonic pharmacologic dose-effect relationship; this is evident from three decades of research. Rosen Psychiatric sequelae of phencyclidine abuse. In some cases, they commit crimes to obtain money to buy drugs. Gangs in California trained their members to make methamphetamine in clandestine labs, and this illegal activity quickly spread eastward.
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