At the same time settlements moved beyond the traditional boundaries of the Frankish Empire to new frontiers in Europe, beyond the Elbe river, tripling the size of Germany in the process. Crusaders founded European colonies in the Levant , the majority of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered from the Muslims, and the Normans colonised southern Italy, all part of the major population increase and resettlement pattern. The High Middle Ages produced many different forms of intellectual, spiritual and artistic works. The most famous are the great cathedrals as expressions of Gothic architecture , which evolved from Romanesque architecture.
This age saw the rise of modern nation-states in Western Europe and the ascent of the famous Italian city-states , such as Florence and Venice. The influential popes of the Catholic Church called volunteer armies from across Europe to a series of Crusades against the Seljuq Turks , who occupied the Holy Land. The rediscovery of the works of Aristotle led Thomas Aquinas and other thinkers to develop the philosophy of Scholasticism. Since the mid-8th century, the Byzantine Empire's borders had been shrinking in the face of Islamic expansion.
Antioch had been wrested back into Byzantine control by , but the resurgent power of the Roman successors in the West claimed a right and a duty for the lost seats in Asia and Africa. Pope Leo sparked a further dispute by defending the filioque clause in the Nicene Creed which the West had adopted customarily. The Orthodox also state that the Bishop of Rome has authority only over his own diocese and does not have any authority outside his diocese. There were other less significant catalysts for the Schism however, including variance over liturgy.
Further changes were set afoot with a redivision of power in Europe. William the Conqueror , a Duke of Normandy invaded England in The Norman Conquest was a pivotal event in English history for several reasons. This linked England more closely with continental Europe through the introduction of a Norman aristocracy, thereby lessening Scandinavian influence. It created one of the most powerful monarchies in Europe and engendered a sophisticated governmental system. Being based on an island, moreover, England was to develop a powerful navy and trade relationships that would come to constitute a vast part of the world including India, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and many key naval strategic points like Bermuda , Suez , Hong Kong and especially Gibraltar.
These strategic advantages grew and were to prove decisive until after the Second World War. The Roman Catholic Church developed as a major power, leading to conflicts between the Pope and Emperor. The geographic reach of the Roman Catholic Church expanded enormously due to the conversions of pagan kings Scandinavia, Lithuania , Poland, Hungary , the Christian Reconquista of Al-Andalus , and the crusades. Most of Europe was Roman Catholic in the 15th century.
Early signs of the rebirth of civilization in western Europe began to appear in the 11th century as trade started again in Italy, leading to the economic and cultural growth of independent city-states such as Venice and Florence ; at the same time, nation-states began to take form in places such as France, England, Spain, and Portugal, although the process of their formation usually marked by rivalry between the monarchy, the aristocratic feudal lords and the church actually took several centuries.
These new nation-states began writing in their own cultural vernaculars, instead of the traditional Latin. Notable figures of this movement would include Dante Alighieri and Christine de Pizan born Christina da Pizzano , the former writing in Italian, and the latter, although an Italian Venice , relocated to France, writing in French. See Reconquista for the latter two countries. Elsewhere, the Holy Roman Empire , essentially based in Germany and Italy, further fragmented into a myriad of feudal principalities or small city states, whose subjection to the emperor was only formal.
The 13th and 14th century, when the Mongol Empire came to power, is often called the Age of the Mongols. Mongol armies expanded westward under the command of Batu Khan. Their western conquests included almost all of Russia save Novgorod , which became a vassal ,  the Kipchak-Cuman Confederation , Hungary, and Poland which had remained a sovereign state.
Most historians believe only his death prevented the complete conquest of Europe. Under Uzbeg Khan , Islam became the official religion of the region in the early 14th century. In Russia, the Tatars ruled the various states of the Rus' through vassalage for over years. The Late Middle Ages span the 14th and 15th centuries. Around , centuries of European prosperity and growth came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, such as the Great Famine of — and the Black Death killed people in a matter of days, reducing the population of some areas by half as many survivors fled.
Kishlansky reports:. Depopulation caused labor to become scarcer; the survivors were better paid and peasants could drop some of the burdens of feudalism. There was also social unrest; France and England experienced serious peasant risings including the Jacquerie and the Peasants' Revolt. At the same time, the unity of the Catholic Church was shattered by the Great Schism. Collectively these events have been called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Beginning in the 14th century, the Baltic Sea became one of the most important trade routes.
The Hanseatic League , an alliance of trading cities, facilitated the absorption of vast areas of Poland, Lithuania and Livonia into trade with other European countries. This fed the growth of powerful states in this part of Europe including Poland-Lithuania, Hungary, Bohemia, and Muscovy later on.
The conventional end of the Middle Ages is usually associated with the fall of the city of Constantinople and of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottoman Turks in The Turks made the city the capital of their Ottoman Empire , which lasted until and included Egypt , Syria and most of the Balkans. The Ottoman wars in Europe , also sometimes referred to as the Turkish wars, marked an essential part of the history of the continent as a whole.
The Early Modern period spans the centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution , roughly from to , or from the discovery of the New World in to the French Revolution in The period is characterised by the rise to importance of science and increasingly rapid technological progress , secularised civic politics and the nation state. Capitalist economies began their rise, beginning in northern Italian republics such as Genoa. The early modern period also saw the rise and dominance of the economic theory of mercantilism. As such, the early modern period represents the decline and eventual disappearance, in much of the European sphere, of feudalism , serfdom and the power of the Catholic Church.
The period includes the Protestant Reformation , the disastrous Thirty Years' War , the European colonisation of the Americas and the European witch-hunts. Despite these crises, the 14th century was also a time of great progress within the arts and sciences. A renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman as well as more recent Arabic texts  led to what has later been termed the Italian Renaissance.
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the north, west and middle Europe during a cultural lag of some two and a half centuries, its influence affected literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, history, religion, and other aspects of intellectual enquiry.
The Italian Petrarch Francesco di Petracco , deemed the first full-blooded Humanist, wrote in the s: "I am alive now, yet I would rather have been born in another time. In the 15th and 16th centuries the continuing enthusiasm for the ancients was reinforced by the feeling that the inherited culture was dissolving and here was a storehouse of ideas and attitudes with which to rebuild. Matteo Palmieri wrote in the s: "Now indeed may every thoughtful spirit thank god that it has been permitted to him to be born in a new age. The Renaissance was inspired by the growth in study of Latin and Greek texts and the admiration of the Greco-Roman era as a golden age.
This prompted many artists and writers to begin drawing from Roman and Greek examples for their works, but there was also much innovation in this period, especially by multi-faceted artists such as Leonardo da Vinci. The Humanists saw their repossession of a great past as a Renaissance—a rebirth of civilization itself.
Important political precedents were also set in this period. Also important were the many patrons who ruled states and used the artistry of the Renaissance as a sign of their power. In all, the Renaissance could be viewed as an attempt by intellectuals to study and improve the secular and worldly, both through the revival of ideas from antiquity, and through novel approaches to thought—the immediate past being too "Gothic" in language, thought and sensibility.
During this period, Spain experienced the greatest epoch of cultural splendor in its history. This epoch is known as the Spanish Golden age and took place between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Toward the end of the period, an era of discovery began. The growth of the Ottoman Empire , culminating in the fall of Constantinople in , cut off trading possibilities with the east.
Western Europe was forced to discover new trading routes, as happened with Columbus' travel to the Americas in , and Vasco da Gama 's circumnavigation of India and Africa in The numerous wars did not prevent European states from exploring and conquering wide portions of the world, from Africa to Asia and the newly discovered Americas.
In the 15th century, Portugal led the way in geographical exploration along the coast of Africa in search of a maritime route to India, followed by Spain near the close of the 15th century, dividing their exploration of the world according to the Treaty of Tordesillas in The Yermak 's voyage of led to the annexation of the Tatar Siberian Khanate into Russia, and the Russians would soon after conquer the rest of Siberia , steadily expanding to the east and south over the next centuries.
Oceanic explorations soon followed by France, England and the Netherlands, who explored the Portuguese and Spanish trade routes into the Pacific Ocean, reaching Australia in  and New Zealand in With the development of the printing press , new ideas spread throughout Europe and challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology. The most common dating of the Reformation begins in , when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses , and concludes in with the Treaty of Westphalia that ended years of European religious wars. During this period corruption in the Catholic Church led to a sharp backlash in the Protestant Reformation.
It gained many followers especially among princes and kings seeking a stronger state by ending the influence of the Catholic Church. These religious divisions brought on a wave of wars inspired and driven by religion but also by the ambitious monarchs in Western Europe who were becoming more centralised and powerful.
The Protestant Reformation also led to a strong reform movement in the Catholic Church called the Counter-Reformation , which aimed to reduce corruption as well as to improve and strengthen Catholic Dogma. Two important groups in the Catholic Church who emerged from this movement were the Jesuits , who helped keep Spain, Portugal, Poland and other European countries within the Catholic fold, and the Oratorians of St Philip Neri , who ministered to the faithful in Rome, restoring their confidence in the Church of Jesus Christ that subsisted substantially in the Church of Rome.
Still, the Catholic Church was somewhat weakened by the Reformation, portions of Europe were no longer under its sway and kings in the remaining Catholic countries began to take control of the Church institutions within their kingdoms. While still enforcing the predominance of Catholicism they continued to allow the large religious minorities to maintain their faiths, traditions and customs. Another important development in this period was the growth of pan-European sentiments. Many wars broke out again in a few years.
The Reformation also made European peace impossible for many centuries. Another development was the idea of 'European superiority'. The ideal of civilisation was taken over from the ancient Greeks and Romans: discipline, education and living in the city were required to make people civilised; Europeans and non-Europeans were judged for their civility, and Europe regarded itself as superior to other continents. There was a movement by some such as Montaigne that regarded the non-Europeans as a better, more natural and primitive people. Post services were founded all over Europe, which allowed a humanistic interconnected network of intellectuals across Europe, despite religious divisions.
However, the Roman Catholic Church banned many leading scientific works; this led to an intellectual advantage for Protestant countries, where the banning of books was regionally organised. Francis Bacon and other advocates of science tried to create unity in Europe by focusing on the unity in nature. On the other hand, the Parliament in the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth grew in power, taking legislative rights from the Polish king. The new state power was contested by parliaments in other countries especially England. New kinds of states emerged which were co-operation agreements between territorial rulers, cities, farmer republics and knights.
The Spanish constituted the first global empire and during the 16th century and the first half of the 17th century, Spain was the most powerful nation in the world, but was increasingly challenged by British , French , and the short-lived Dutch and Swedish colonial efforts of the 17th and 18th centuries. New forms of trade and expanding horizons made new forms of government , law and eco nomics necessary. Colonial expansion continued in the following centuries with some setbacks, such as successful wars of independence in the British American colonies and then later Haiti , Mexico , Argentina , Brazil , and others amid European turmoil of the Napoleonic Wars ; Haiti unique in abolishing slavery.
Spain had control of a large part of North America, all of Central America and a great part of South America, the Caribbean and the Philippines ; Britain took the whole of Australia and New Zealand, most of India, and large parts of Africa and North America; France held parts of Canada and India nearly all of which was lost to Britain in , Indochina , large parts of Africa and Caribbean islands; the Netherlands gained the East Indies now Indonesia and islands in the Caribbean; Portugal obtained Brazil and several territories in Africa and Asia; and later, powers such as Germany, Belgium, Italy and Russia acquired further colonies.
This expansion helped the economy of the countries owning them. Trade flourished, because of the minor stability of the empires. By the late 16th century, American silver accounted for one-fifth of the Spain's total budget. The 17th century was an era of crisis. In addition, there were secessions and upheavals in several parts of the Spanish empire, the world's first global empire. Political insurgency and a spate of popular revolts seldom equalled shook the foundations of most states in Europe and Asia. More wars took place around the world in the midth century than in almost any other period of recorded history.
The crises spread far beyond Europe—for example Ming China, the most populous state in the world, collapsed. Across the Northern Hemisphere, the midth century experienced almost unprecedented death rates. Parker suggests that environmental factors may have been in part to blame, especially global cooling. The "absolute" rule of powerful monarchs such as Louis XIV ruled France — ,  Peter the Great ruled Russia — ,  Maria Theresa ruled Habsburg lands — and Frederick the Great ruled Prussia —86 ,  produced powerful centralized states, with strong armies and powerful bureaucracies, all under the control of the king.
Throughout the early part of this period, capitalism through Mercantilism was replacing feudalism as the principal form of economic organisation, at least in the western half of Europe. The expanding colonial frontiers resulted in a Commercial Revolution. The period is noted for the rise of modern science and the application of its findings to technological improvements, which animated the Industrial Revolution after The Reformation had profound effects on the unity of Europe.
Not only were nations divided one from another by their religious orientation, but some states were torn apart internally by religious strife, avidly fostered by their external enemies. France suffered this fate in the 16th century in the series of conflicts known as the French Wars of Religion , which ended in the triumph of the Bourbon Dynasty.
England avoided this fate for a while and settled down under Elizabeth to a moderate Anglicanism. Much of modern-day Germany was made up of numerous small sovereign states under the theoretical framework of the Holy Roman Empire , which was further divided along internally drawn sectarian lines. The Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth is notable in this time for its religious indifference and a general immunity to the horrors of European religious strife. The Thirty Years' War was fought between and , across Germany and neighboring areas, and involved most of the major European powers except England and Russia.
The major impact of the war, in which mercenary armies were extensively used, was the devastation of entire regions scavenged bare by the foraging armies. Episodes of widespread famine and disease devastated the population of the German states and, to a lesser extent, the Low Countries , Bohemia and Italy, while bankrupting many of the regional powers involved.
Between one-fourth and one-third of the German population perished from direct military causes or from disease and starvation, as well as postponed births. After the Peace of Westphalia , which ended the war in favour of nations deciding their own religious allegiance, absolutism became the norm of the continent, while parts of Europe experimented with constitutions foreshadowed by the English Civil War and particularly the Glorious Revolution.
European military conflict did not cease, but had less disruptive effects on the lives of Europeans. In the advanced northwest, the Enlightenment gave a philosophical underpinning to the new outlook, and the continued spread of literacy, made possible by the printing press , created new secular forces in thought. In the 16th and 17th centuries Central and Eastern Europe was an arena of conflict for domination of the continent between Sweden, the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire.
This period saw a gradual decline of these three powers which were eventually replaced by new enlightened absolutist monarchies: Russia, Prussia and Austria. By the turn of the 19th century they had become new powers, having divided Poland between themselves, with Sweden and Turkey having experienced substantial territorial losses to Russia and Austria respectively as well as pauperisation.
The main issue was whether France under King Louis XIV would take control of Spain's very extensive possessions and thereby become by far the dominant power, or be forced to share power with other major nations. After initial allied successes, the long war produced a military stalemate and ended with the Treaty of Utrecht , which was based on a balance of power in Europe. Historian Russell Weigley argues that the many wars almost never accomplished more than they cost. Frederick the Great , king of Prussia —86, modernized the Prussian army, introduced new tactical and strategic concepts, fought mostly successful wars and doubled the size of Prussia.
Frederick had a rationale based on Enlightenment thought: he fought total wars for limited objectives.
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The goal was to convince rival kings that it was better to negotiate and make peace than to fight him. Russia with its numerous wars and rapid expansion was in a continuous state of financial crisis, which it covered by borrowing from Amsterdam and issuing paper money that caused inflation. Russia boasted a large and powerful army, a very large and complex internal bureaucracy, and a splendid court that rivaled Paris and London.
However the government was living far beyond its means and seized Church lands, leaving organized religion in a weak condition. Throughout the 18th century Russia remained "a poor, backward, overwhelmingly agricultural, and illiterate country. The Enlightenment was a powerful, widespread cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in late 17th-century Europe emphasizing the power of reason rather than tradition; it was especially favourable to science especially Isaac Newton's physics and hostile to religious orthodoxy especially of the Catholic Church.
It promoted scientific thought, skepticism, and intellectual interchange. This new way of thinking was that rational thought begins with clearly stated principles, uses correct logic to arrive at conclusions, tests the conclusions against evidence, and then revises the principles in the light of the evidence. Enlightenment thinkers opposed superstition. Some Enlightenment thinkers collaborated with Enlightened despots , absolutist rulers who attempted to forcibly impose some of the new ideas about government into practice. The ideas of the Enlightenment exerted significant influence on the culture, politics, and governments of Europe.
Originating in the 17th century, it was sparked by philosophers Francis Bacon — , Baruch Spinoza — , John Locke — , Pierre Bayle — , Voltaire — , Francis Hutcheson , — , David Hume — and physicist Isaac Newton — The Scientific Revolution is closely tied to the Enlightenment, as its discoveries overturned many traditional concepts and introduced new perspectives on nature and man's place within it. The Enlightenment flourished until about —, at which point the Enlightenment, with its emphasis on reason, gave way to Romanticism , which placed a new emphasis on emotion; a Counter-Enlightenment began to increase in prominence.
The Romantics argued that the Enlightenment was reductionistic insofar as it had largely ignored the forces of imagination, mystery, and sentiment. Some 25, copies of the 35 volume encyclopedia were sold, half of them outside France. These new intellectual strains would spread to urban centres across Europe, notably England, Scotland, the German states, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Italy, Austria, and Spain, as well as Britain's American colonies.
Taking a long-term historical perspective, Norman Davies has argued that Freemasonry was a powerful force on behalf of Liberalism and Enlightenment ideas in Europe, from about to the 20th century. It expanded rapidly during the Age of Enlightenment , reaching practically every country in Europe. It was especially attractive to royalty, powerful aristocrats and politicians as well as intellectuals, artists and political activists.
Its great enemy was the Roman Catholic Church, so that in countries with a large Catholic element, such as France, Italy, Austria, Spain and Mexico , much of the ferocity of the political battles involve the confrontation between the Church and Freemasonry. The " long 19th century ", from to saw the drastic social, political and economic changes initiated by the Industrial Revolution , the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Following the reorganisation of the political map of Europe at the Congress of Vienna in , Europe experienced the rise of Nationalism, the rise of the Russian Empire and the peak of the British Empire , which was paralleled by the decline of the Ottoman Empire.
Finally, the rise of the German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire initiated the course of events that culminated in the outbreak of the First World War in The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th century and early 19th century when major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and transport affected socioeconomic and cultural conditions in Britain and subsequently spread throughout Europe and North America and eventually the world, a process that continues as industrialisation.
Technological advancements, most notably the invention of the steam engine by Scottish engineer James Watt, were major catalysts in the industrialisation of Britain and, later, the wider world. It started in England and Scotland in the midth century with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals , improved roads and railways.
The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal and powered machinery mainly in textile manufacturing underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous. Historians R.
Palmer and Joel Colton argue:. The era of the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic wars was a difficult time for monarchs. The American Revolution — was the first successful revolt of a colony against a European power. It proclaimed, in the words of Thomas Jefferson , the Enlightenment position that "all men are created equal. The French Revolution — was a product of the same democratic forces in the Atlantic World and had an even greater impact. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War had nearly bankrupted the state.
After repeated failed attempts at financial reform, King Louis XVI had to convene the Estates-General , a representative body of the country made up of three estates: the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. The third estate, joined by members of the other two, declared itself to be a National Assembly and swore an oath not to dissolve until France had a constitution and created, in July, the National Constituent Assembly.
At the same time the people of Paris revolted, famously storming the Bastille prison on 14 July At the time the assembly wanted to create a constitutional monarchy , and over the following two years passed various laws including the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , the abolition of feudalism , and a fundamental change in the relationship between France and Rome. At first the king agreed with these changes and enjoyed reasonable popularity with the people.
As anti-royalism increased along with threat of foreign invasion, the king tried to flee and join France's enemies. He was captured and on 12 January , having been convicted of treason, he was guillotined. On 20 September the National Convention abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic.
Due to the emergency of war the National Convention created the Committee of Public Safety , controlled by Maximilien de Robespierre of the Jacobin Club , to act as the country's executive. Under Robespierre the committee initiated the Reign of Terror , during which up to 40, people were executed in Paris, mainly nobles and those convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal , often on the flimsiest of evidence. Internal tensions at Paris drove the Committee towards increasing assertions of radicalism and increasing suspicions, fueling new terror: a few months into this phase, more and more prominent revolutionaries were being sent to the guilloutine by Robespierre and his faction, for example Madame Roland and Georges Danton.
Elsewhere in the country, counter-revolutionary insurrections were brutally suppressed. The regime was overthrown in the coup of 9 Thermidor 27 July and Robespierre was executed. The regime which followed ended the Terror and relaxed Robespierre's more extreme policies. Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the world's most famous soldiers and statesmen, leading France to great victories over numerous European enemies.
Despite modest origins he became Emperor and restructured much of European diplomacy, politics and law, until he was forced to abdicate in His day comeback in failed at the Battle of Waterloo , and he died in exile on a remote island, remembered as a great hero by many Frenchmen and as a great villain by British and other enemies. Napoleon, despite his youth, was France's most successful general in the Revolutionary wars, having conquered large parts of Italy and forced the Austrians to sue for peace.
In on 18 Brumaire 9 November he overthrew the feeble government, replacing it with the Consulate , which he dominated. He gained popularity in France by restoring the Church, keeping taxes low, centralizing power in Paris, and winning glory on the battlefield. In he crowned himself Emperor. In , Napoleon planned to invade Britain, but a renewed British alliance with Russia and Austria Third Coalition , forced him to turn his attention towards the continent, while at the same time the French fleet was demolished by the British at the Battle of Trafalgar , ending any plan to invade Britain.
On 2 December , Napoleon defeated a numerically superior Austro-Russian army at Austerlitz , forcing Austria's withdrawal from the coalition see Treaty of Pressburg and dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. In , a Fourth Coalition was set up. After the measured victories at Smolensk and Borodino Napoleon occupied Moscow, only to find it burned by the retreating Russian army.
He was forced to withdraw. On the march back his army was harassed by Cossacks , and suffered disease and starvation. Only 20, of his men survived the campaign. By the tide had begun to turn from Napoleon. Having been defeated by a seven nation army at the Battle of Leipzig in October , he was forced to abdicate after the Six Days' Campaign and the occupation of Paris. Under the Treaty of Fontainebleau he was exiled to the island of Elba. He returned to France on 1 March see Hundred Days , raised an army, but was finally defeated by a British and Prussian force at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June and exiled to a small British island in the South Atlantic.
Outside France the Revolution had a major impact. Its ideas became widespread. Roberts argues that Napoleon was responsible for key ideas of the modern world, so that, "meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on-were protected, consolidated, codified, and geographically extended by Napoleon during his 16 years of power.
Furthermore, the French armies in the s and s directly overthrew feudal remains in much of western Europe. They liberalised property laws , ended seigneurial dues , abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalised of divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and made Jews equal to everyone else.
The Inquisition ended as did the Holy Roman Empire. The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men. In foreign affairs, the French Army down to was quite successful. Roberts says that Napoleon fought 60 battles, losing only seven.
It conquered the Netherlands, and made it a puppet state. It took control of the German areas on the left bank of the Rhine River and set up a puppet regime. It conquered Switzerland and most of Italy, setting up a series of puppet states. The result was glory for France, and an infusion of much needed money from the conquered lands, which also provided direct support to the French Army. It scored a series of victories that rolled back French successes, and trapped the French Army in Egypt.
Napoleon himself slipped through the British blockade in October , returning to Paris, where he overthrew the government and made himself the ruler. Napoleon conquered most of Italy in the name of the French Revolution in — He consolidated old units and split up Austria's holdings.
Financial and social rankings Free trade areas Telecommunications Transport. It slowly rebuilt its relationships, seeking alliances with Russia and Britain to control the growing power of Germany. Robert Balmain Overview. However the government was living far beyond its means and seized Church lands, leaving organized religion in a weak condition. The Late Middle Ages span the 14th and 15th centuries.
He set up a series of new republics, complete with new codes of law and abolition of old feudal privileges. The Neapolitan Republic was formed around Naples, but it lasted only five months. He later formed the Kingdom of Italy , with his brother as King.
All these new countries were satellites of France, and had to pay large subsidies to Paris, as well as provide military support for Napoleon's wars. Their political and administrative systems were modernized, the metric system introduced, and trade barriers reduced. Jewish ghettos were abolished. Belgium and Piedmont became integral parts of France. Most of the new nations were abolished and returned to prewar owners in However, Artz emphasizes the benefits the Italians gained from the French Revolution:.
Likewise in Switzerland the long-term impact of the French Revolution has been assessed by Martin:. The greatest impact came of course in France itself. In addition to effects similar to those in Italy and Switzerland, France saw the introduction of the principle of legal equality, and the downgrading of the once powerful and rich Catholic Church to just a bureau controlled by the government.
Power became centralized in Paris, with its strong bureaucracy and an army supplied by conscripting all young men. French politics were permanently polarized — new names were given, "left" and "right" for the supporters and opponents of the principles of the Revolution. British historian Max Hastings says there is no question that as a military genius Napoleon ranks with Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar in greatness.
However, in the political realm, historians debate whether Napoleon was "an enlightened despot who laid the foundations of modern Europe or, instead, a megalomaniac who wrought greater misery than any man before the coming of Hitler. Historian Kenneth Scott Latourette argues that the outlook for Protestantism at the start of the 19th century was discouraging. Talks took place in two different cities, as each side wanted to meet on territory under its own control.
A total of delegations arrived to represent the belligerent states, but not all delegations were present at the same time. The treaties also ended the Eighty Years' War — between Spain and the Dutch Republic , with Spain formally recognising the independence of the Dutch. The Peace of Westphalia established the precedent of peace established by diplomatic congress. A new system of political order arose in central Europe, based upon peaceful coexistence among sovereign states.
Inter-state aggression was to be held in check by a balance of power , and a norm was established against interference in another state's domestic affairs. As European influence spread across the globe, these Westphalian principles, especially the concept of sovereign states, became central to international law and to the prevailing world order. Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs began in Cologne in These negotiations were initially blocked by Cardinal Richelieu of France, who insisted on the inclusion of all his allies, whether fully sovereign countries or states within the Holy Roman Empire.
Both cities were maintained as neutral and demilitarized zones for the negotiations. Only Roman Catholic worship was permitted, while Calvinism and Lutheranism were prohibited. The peace negotiations had no exact beginning and ending, because the delegations never met in a plenary session. Instead, various delegations arrived between and and left between and The largest number of diplomats were present between January and July B Mowat Book 35 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. International relations by R.
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Americans in England by R. B Mowat Book 16 editions published between and in English and Undetermined and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. England in the eighteenth century by R. B Mowat Book 22 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Select treaties and documents to illustrate the development of the modern European states system, by R. The American entente by R. B Mowat Book 12 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide.
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