The Emergence of Southern Multinationals: Their Impact on Europe

European Neighbourhood Policy
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webinfogroup.com/profiles/75/samsung-galaxy-note-spyware.html Their ties to an international culture of work, leisure, information — make many of them deeply indifferent to the prospect of national decline. Instead of financing public services and the public treasury, new elites are investing their money in improving their voluntary ghettos: private schools in their residential neighborhoods, private police, garbage collection systems.

They have "withdrawn from common life". Composed of those who control the international flows of capital and information, who preside over philanthropic foundations and institutions of higher education, manage the instruments of cultural production and thus fix the terms of public debate. So, the political debate is limited mainly to the dominant classes and political ideologies lose all contact with the concerns of the ordinary citizen.

The result of this is that no one has a likely solution to these problems and that there are furious ideological battles on related issues. However, they remain protected from the problems affecting the working classes: the decline of industrial activity, the resulting loss of employment, the decline of the middle class, increasing the number of the poor, the rising crime rate, growing drug trafficking, the urban crisis. Snow et al. One of the most infamous tactics of the movement is the Battle of Seattle in , where there were protests against the World Trade Organization's Third Ministerial Meeting.

Capital markets have to do with raising and investing money in various human enterprises. Increasing integration of these financial markets between countries leads to the emergence of a global capital marketplace or a single world market. In the long run, increased movement of capital between countries tends to favor owners of capital more than any other group; in the short run, owners and workers in specific sectors in capital-exporting countries bear much of the burden of adjusting to increased movement of capital.

Those opposed to capital market integration on the basis of human rights issues are especially disturbed by the various abuses which they think are perpetuated by global and international institutions that, they say, promote neoliberalism without regard to ethical standards. In light of the economic gap between rich and poor countries, movement adherents claim free trade without measures in place to protect the under-capitalized will contribute only to the strengthening the power of industrialized nations often termed the "North" in opposition to the developing world's "South".

Corporatist ideology, which privileges the rights of corporations artificial or juridical persons over those of natural persons , is an underlying factor in the recent rapid expansion of global commerce. A related contemporary ideology, consumerism , which encourages the personal acquisition of goods and services, also drives globalization.

Concern over the treatment of consumers by large corporations has spawned substantial activism, and the incorporation of consumer education into school curricula. Social activists hold materialism is connected to global retail merchandizing and supplier convergence , war , greed, anomie , crime , environmental degradation, and general social malaise and discontent.

One variation on this topic is activism by postconsumers , with the strategic emphasis on moving beyond addictive consumerism. The global justice movement is the loose collection of individuals and groups—often referred to as a " movement of movements "—who advocate fair trade rules and perceive current institutions of global economic integration as problems.

Those involved, however, frequently deny that they are anti-globalization , insisting that they support the globalization of communication and people and oppose only the global expansion of corporate power. Many nongovernmental organizations have now arisen to fight these inequalities that many in Latin America, Africa and Asia face. They often create partnerships where they work towards improving the lives of those who live in developing countries by building schools, fixing infrastructure, cleaning water supplies, purchasing equipment and supplies for hospitals, and other aid efforts.

The economies of the world have developed unevenly, historically, such that entire geographical regions were left mired in poverty and disease while others began to reduce poverty and disease on a wholesale basis. From around through at least , the GDP gap, while still wide, appeared to be closing and, in some more rapidly developing countries , life expectancies began to rise. Overall equality across humanity, considered as individuals, has improved very little.

Within the decade between and , income inequality grew even in traditionally egalitarian countries like Germany, Sweden and Denmark. With a few exceptions—France, Japan, Spain—the top 10 percent of earners in most advanced economies raced ahead, while the bottom 10 percent fell further behind. Critics of globalization argue that globalization results in weak labor unions : the surplus in cheap labor coupled with an ever-growing number of companies in transition weakened labor unions in high-cost areas. Unions become less effective and workers their enthusiasm for unions when membership begins to decline.

Examples include quarrying , salvage, and farm work as well as trafficking, bondage, forced labor, prostitution and pornography. Women often participate in the workforce in precarious work , including export-oriented employment. Evidence suggests that while globalization has expanded women's access to employment, the long-term goal of transforming gender inequalities remains unmet and appears unattainable without regulation of capital and a reorientation and expansion of the state's role in funding public goods and providing a social safety net. In , a study published by the IMF posited that neoliberalism , the ideological backbone of contemporary globalized capitalism, has been "oversold", with the benefits of neoliberal policies being "fairly difficult to establish when looking at a broad group of countries" and the costs, most significantly higher income inequality within nations, "hurt the level and sustainability of growth.

Beginning in the s, opposition arose to the idea of a world government, as advocated by organizations such as the World Federalist Movement WFM. Those who oppose global governance typically do so on objections that the idea is unfeasible, inevitably oppressive, or simply unnecessary. Such reasoning dates back to the founding of the League of Nations and, later, the United Nations.

Environmentalism is a broad philosophy, ideology [] [] [] and social movement regarding concerns for environmental conservation and improvement of the health of the environment. Environmentalist concerns with globalization include issues such as global warming , climate change , global water supply and water crises , inequity in energy consumption and energy conservation , transnational air pollution and pollution of the world ocean , overpopulation , world habitat sustainability , deforestation , biodiversity loss and species extinction.

One critique of globalization is that natural resources of the poor have been systematically taken over by the rich and the pollution promulgated by the rich is systematically dumped on the poor. Globalization is thus leading to a type of" environmental apartheid ". In her book Ancient Futures , Norberg-Hodge claims that "centuries of ecological balance and social harmony are under threat from the pressures of development and globalization.

Although globalization takes similar steps in most countries, scholars such as Hodge claim that it might not be effective to certain countries and that globalization has actually moved some countries backward instead of developing them. A related area of concern is the pollution haven hypothesis , which posits that, when large industrialized nations seek to set up factories or offices abroad, they will often look for the cheapest option in terms of resources and labor that offers the land and material access they require see Race to the bottom.

Developing countries with cheap resources and labor tend to have less stringent environmental regulations , and conversely, nations with stricter environmental regulations become more expensive for companies as a result of the costs associated with meeting these standards.

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Thus, companies that choose to physically invest in foreign countries tend to re locate to the countries with the lowest environmental standards or weakest enforcement. The European Union—Mercosur Free Trade Agreement , which would form one of the world's largest free trade areas, [] has been denounced by environmental activists and indigenous rights campaigners.

The globalization of food production is associated with a more efficient system of food production. This is because crops are grown in countries with optimum growing conditions. This improvement causes an increase in the world's food supply which encourages improved food security. Norway's limited crop range advocates globalization of food production and availability. The northern-most country in Europe requires trade with other countries to ensure population food demands are met. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Globalization disambiguation.

Main article: History of globalization. See also: Timeline of international trade. Main article: Archaic globalization. Main article: Proto-globalization. Main article: Economic globalization. Main article: Cultural globalization.

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Main article: Political globalization. See also: Internet. See also: List of globalization-related indices. See also: Criticisms of globalization. Main article: Democratic globalization. Main articles: Global civics and Multiculturalism. See also: Global citizenship. Main article: Anti-globalization movement. Main article: Anti-capitalist movements.

Main articles: Anti-corporatism and Anti-consumerism. Main article: Global justice movement. Main articles: Social inequality and International inequality. Main article: Global governance. Main article: Environmentalism. See also: Global warming , Climate change , and Deforestation. Main article: Food security. Civilizing mission Cosmopolitanism Deglobalization Environmental racism Eurasianism Franchising Free trade Global civics Global commons Global mobility Globalism Global public goods List of bilateral free-trade agreements List of globalization-related indices List of multilateral free-trade agreements Middle East and globalization Neorealism international relations North—South divide Outline of globalization Postdevelopment theory Purple economy Technocapitalism Transnational cinema Transnational citizenship Triadization United Nations Millennium Declaration Vermeer's Hat World Englishes.

Globalization, Knowledge and Society London: Sage. History of Information Technologies. Elon University School of Communications. Retrieved 17 August Guyford Journal of Cybernetics. ReOrient: Global economy in the Asian age. Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved 3 July European Review of Economic History. Economic Geography. In Ritzer, George ed. The Blackwell Companion to Globalization. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 7 July Oxford English Dictionary Online. September Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 23 April Globalization in World History.

London: Norton, pp. New Global Studies. London: Sage. Global Transformations Cambridge: Polity Press. Globalization: A Very Short Introduction.

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Barclay Barrios. Boston: Bedford, St. Martins, The Globalization Reader. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell Publishers. The Nation. The Spectator. The Sociology of Globalization. Policy Press.

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Vienna: International Progress Organization. Yale Global. New York City: Norton. Cambridge Core : — Retrieved 2 March Princeton University Press. Archived from the original on 22 January Retrieved 17 February The Sydney Morning Herald. Global Policy Forum. Archived from the original on 12 July Retrieved 11 November Gender, Development, and Globalization: Economics as if all people mattered.

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The Emergence Of Southern Multinationals - Their Impact On Europe hardcover

The World Transformed to present. Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 15 June Internet World Stats. Miniwatts Marketing Group. The Economist. Intercultural Communication Globalization and Social Justice. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Radio Prague.

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In , more than 30 billion viewers in countries watched the World Cup on television, and more than 3. In: Comparative Education Review, vol. Archived from the original on 14 March Musicology: The Key Concepts. London and New York: Routledge. Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 12 April Multiculturalism or Transculturalism: Towards a Cosmopolitan Citizenship.

Thompson 20 December Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences. Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original PDF on 30 July Retrieved 23 August Archived from the original on 18 October London: Commonwealth Secretariat. New York: Rouledge. University of Chicago Press. January Archived from the original PDF on 28 February Retrieved 9 April Archived from the original PDF on 23 January Oxford University Press. Retrieved 11 May Merriam-Webster, In.

Retrieved 27 March London, England: Refugee Council. Retrieved 7 September Financial Times. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management. By comparison, industrialized countries have only increased production an average of 0. Despite the tendency towards relocation, industrialized countries still lead in the worldwide production of textiles, due to their great strides in modernizing the production process.

In , Germany was still the main world exporter of textiles, producing 12 percent of world exports in value. Italy was second, producing 8. Four other industrialized countries - Belgium 5. The other major exporters were in Asia. The territory of Hong Kong ranked third with 7. The footwear and clothing industries are similar in structure and share many of the characteristics of production and trade. Most of the countries that have emerged as successful producers and exporters of garments have also become important in footwear.

Among the exceptions, Brazil and Mexico have become key players in footwear, but much less in clothing. A few other countries - such as Singapore - are major producers of garments but not footwear. Almost all of the higher-cost countries have seen their footwear production fall. In the United States, the industry has declined - since the late s - more than in any other industrialized nation, although footwear production in France, Germany and the United Kingdom has declined significantly in the ensuing years.

Production has also declined, albeit more slowly, in major Southern European producer countries - since in Italy, in Spain, and in Portugal. As in the clothing and textile industries, footwear production has shifted largely to developing countries capable of producing large shares of the world's supply at far less cost.

In , for example, In contrast, North and Central America, which produced only 6. The countries of Western Europe produced Globalization of the footwear, textiles and clothing industries. ISBN International Labour Office, Geneva, Includes Leather, in addition to the Textile, Clothing and Footwear industries discussed above. Clothing At present, more than 60 percent of world clothing exports are manufactured in developing countries. He observed that companies with "foresight to capitalize on international opportunities" must recognize that " cultural anthropology will be an important tool for competitive marketing".

However, the projected outcome of this was not the assimilation of international firms into national cultures, but the creation of a "world customer". The idea of a global corporate village entailed the management and reconstitution of parochial attachments to one's nation. It involved not a denial of the naturalness of national attachments, but an internationalization of the way a nation defines itself.

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The history of multinational corporations is closely intertwined with the history of colonialism , the first multinational corporations being founded to undertake colonial expeditions at the behest of their European monarchical patrons. During the 19th century, formal corporate rule over colonial holdings largely gave way to state-controlled colonies, [47] [48] however corporate control over colonial economic affairs persisted in a majority of colonies.

During the process of decolonization , the European colonial charter companies were disbanded, [43] with the final colonial corporation, the Mozambique Company , dissolving in However the economic impact of corporate colonial exploitation has proved to be lasting and far reaching, [49] with some commentators asserting that this impact is among the chief causes of contemporary global income inequality.

Contemporary critics of multinational corporations have charged that some present day multinational corporations follow the pattern of exploitation and differential wealth distribution established by the now defunct colonial charter corporations, particularly with regards to corporations based in the developed world that operate resource extraction enterprises in the developing world, [50] such as Royal Dutch Shell , and Barrick Gold.

Some of these critics argue that the operations of multinational corporations in the developing world take place within the broader context of neocolonialism. However, multinational corporations from emerging markets are playing an ever-greater role, increasingly impacting the global economy.

Anti-corporate advocates criticize multinational corporations for being without a basis in a national ethos , being ultimately without a specific nationhood, and that this lack of an ethos appears in their ways of operating as they enter into contracts with countries that have low human rights or environmental standards. In other words, increased mobility of multinational corporations benefit capital while workers and communities lose.

Some negative outcomes generated by multinational corporations include increased inequality , unemployment , and wage stagnation. The aggressive use of tax avoidance schemes, and multinational tax havens , allows multinational corporations to gain competitive advantages over small and medium-sized enterprises. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Corporation operating in multiple countries. Main article: Foreign direct investment. Main article: Transnational corporation.

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Further information: International taxation and Extraterritorial jurisdiction. Further information: International legal system. See also: Charter company and Neocolonialism. Main articles: Anti-globalization movement and Anti-corporate activism. Bloomsbury Press, , pp. London Review of Books , Vol. Retrieved 13 March Murray Sayle : "The Netherlands United East Indies Company Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC , founded in , was the world's first multinational, joint-stock, limited liability corporation — as well as its first government-backed trading cartel.

Our own East India Company , founded in , remained a coffee-house clique until , when it, too, began selling shares, not in individual voyages, but in the Company itself, by which time its Dutch rival was by far the biggest commercial enterprise the world had known. Retrieved 8 August Deloitte Insights.

Retrieved 14 August It was a new type of institution: the first multinational company, and the first to issue public stock. These innovations allowed a single company to mobilize financial resources from a large number of investors and create ventures at a scale that had previously only been possible for monarchs. Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 20 May Lowy Institute. Retrieved 28 May Retrieved 22 May The nature of the transnational firm.

Mercosur-EU trade deal critics

Wikimedia Commons has media related to globalization. EU, South American countries agree on draft free trade treaty The European Union and the Mercosur bloc of South American countries have agreed on the draft text of a free-trade deal. With concerns from some lawmakers about the country's human rights record, the agreement needs approval from the European Parliament. September American Sociological Review, February A multinational corporation MNC or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.

Voorhees, Emerson L. Seim, and John I. Pearson Education Inc. Romana College. Archived from the original on 27 November Retrieved 3 January International Financial Management,6th Edition. Beijing Chengxin Weiye Printing Inc.