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For any issue or feedback, please write to ndl-support iitkgp. Access Restriction Subscribed. Log-in to view content. FAQ Help. Member Log-In. E-mail address. Remember me. The PasLite test verifies the completeness of milk pasteurization by detecting alkaline phosphatase, a natural enzyme in milk that is destroyed by the heat and hold time of pasteurization. When a dairy sample is mixed with PasLite reagents and incubated, the resulting solution emits light in an amount directly proportional to the phosphatase enzyme present.
The development of milk powders has revolutionized the dairy industry and allowed for a highly nutritional foodstuff to be exported safely around the world.
History tells us that in the thirteenth century, Marco Polo reported that soldiers of Kublai Khan carried sun-dried milk on their expeditions [ 57 ]. Its uses include in bakery, confectionary, ice cream, and in fermented food such as yogurt. Many are advertised as nutritional supplements and are fortified with vitamins, folic acid, and iron.
Milk powder is manufactured by spray-drying precondensed milk. Evaporation is simply the removal of a solvent from a solution or slurry. Milk itself is defined as a colloid with the solvent being the water. Other methods of removing water can include freeze-drying [ 59 ]. As some products are sensitive to heat, the design of evaporators with respect to temperature and holding time is vital in order to achieve the desired effects on the one hand, but without causing heat damage and denaturation to the milk proteins. Energy efficiency is the main driving force in improved design and technologies in evaporation [ 60 , 61 ].
It can go to storage, be recirculated, recovered for heat transfer, or filtrated but this is secondary to the evaporation process itself. Steam economy is a term used to quantify how much original steam is used in ratio to vapor steam. This cuts down the cost of generating original steam feed.
There are three main elements in evaporation: heat transfer, vapor-liquid separation, and energy efficiency [ 62 ]. For effective drying, the air should be hot, dry low humidity and moving. Fluid beds permit mild second stage drying and cooling of delicate products. Agglomeration changes the bulk density of the product [ 12 ].
The bulk density of the powder can dictate how the milk powder dissolves in hot beverages including for tea, coffee, and chocolate. The particle size of the milk powders determines its reconstitution properties. The standard method for measuring bulk density is ISO [ 64 ]. Milk powders can be classified accordingly to the heat treatment they receive. The whey protein nitrogen index WPNI expresses the content of un-denatured whey protein mg WPNI per gram of powder and demonstrates the severity of the heat treatment.
The CN number is not linked to the overall protein content of the milk. The CN value of high quality raw milk is in the range 80—82, expressed in percentages. The CN values in excess of 82 indicate that the denaturation of whey protein has taken place. Completely denatured milk has a CN value of The composition of and additives allowed in milk powders are regulated by the Codex Alimentarius Commission—Milk and Milk Products [ 67 , 68 ].
The Codex standard stipulates that only milk and cream may be allowed in milk powders; though the protein content can be altered by adding lactose. Milk proteins include casein complexes and whey protein fractions. Casein is the most abundant with whey proteins in lower concentrations. The casein concentration in cow milk is 2. The moisture content of milk powder must be controlled during milk processing, as it is a factor in the long-term quality of the product, and it influences the cost of production.
Rapid methods and newly designed equipment are always being introduced to avoid air humidity interference in the measurement and one new method is by using a microwave cavity perturbation technique [ 73 ]. Each step along the milk processing train can be contaminate by the air [ 74 ] and the water [ 75 ], used in the milk processing stages.
Hygiene control at all stages, including hygienic design of the manufacturing equipment, is critically important. The microbial quality of milk starts a farm level. Milk is sterile at secretion in the udder but is colonized by bacteria before it leaves the udder [ 76 ]. The dairy farmer has the responsibility of managing and maintaining a clean and hygienic milking parlor with a good milking and storage routine.
The farmer can detect early signs of mastitis infection by using a somatic cell count SSC test.
High levels of SCC also reduce other levels of milk constituent including lactose. This reaction is caused by the release of DNA from somatic cells, which are now higher due to the immune response of the cow to infections. Mastitis is caused by the microorganism Staphylococcus aureus. CMT test are available commercially from many companies. The milk tanker driver can perform a few tests at the farm, but this is not often practical.
The collector will also take a sample of raw milk and label it with a bar code identifier, to be brought back to the dairy processing plant. Composite samples are taken for the detection of inhibitory substances e. At the milk intake point, the milk is tested before acceptance into the processing train. One such historic test described in [ 77 , 78 ] is the Resazurin test, which determines the microbiological quality of the milk.
The theory of this test is that Resazurin, a blue dye, is reduced in an oxidation-reduction reaction, as bacteria grow in the milk they use up oxygen and this can reduce the Resazurin dye to a pink color. The milk density is another rapid test to determine adulteration of the milk and an indication for the deviations from the normal milk composition, for example, if it has been watered down or skimmed.
Density ranges for standard milk are between 1. A wide variety of bacteria grow and survive in milk, including problematic spore-forming bacteria [ 79 ] and pathogens such as nontyphoid Salmonella , Campylobacter , Listeria monocytogenes, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are also found [ 80 ]. In addition, Cronobacter sakazakii has been found in milk powder producing plants and is a particular risk to infants [ 81 ]. The common bacteria in milk are lactic acid bacteria LAB , which can produce enough acid to reduce the pH of milk, and cause the coagulation of proteins, thus fermenting the milk [ 82 ].
The density test as previously described should be introduced at milk intake, as it can determine the degree of LAB growth. LAB can be divided into rods Lactobacillus and Carnobacterium and cocci all other genera. Thermoduric bacteria can survive pasteurization. They do this by forming spores, which can then carry over into the final product.
This can cause quality defects in milk products such as decreasing the shelf life of pasteurized milk. They are represented mainly by Gram-positive bacteria, e. Potential sources of thermoduric bacteria include silage, faces, animal bedding, and soil [ 84 ]. However, obligate thermophiles, such as Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Anoxybacillus flavithermus tend to grow to high numbers in milk powder manufacturing plants [ 86 ]. Although these microorganisms generally are not pathogenic, there is evidence to show that they cause human diseases [ 87 ], their growth results in high bacterial numbers and their presence can be interpreted as an indicator of poor plant hygiene.
Spores of G. EU legislation, describing precise hygiene rules for foods from animal origins amended in lays down comprehensive criteria for milk quality [ 90 ]. Further contamination takes place during storage and preprocessing activities. New technologies in the dairy industry are slowly integrating both at farm level and in the dairy processing plant. At farm level, the introduction of robotics such as automated milking parlors developed by Lely and introduced in by Delaval Sweden. The cows enter the parlor without prompting and some cows are milked three times a day, with increased milk product for the farmer.
The tags on the cows allow for integration into the machines which collect vast amounts of data, including number of steps, chewing the curd, etc. Robotic milking machines have a life span of approx. Determination of when a cow is in heat for efficient reproduction is available with MooCow developed by Dairy Master Ireland , together with MooMonitor to guide cows in the parlor.
A separate company created MooCall, a sensor attached to the cow tail, which can monitor contractions during calf birth and send a SMS message to the farmer, the sensor can determine as close as 1 h to delivery [ 91 ].
Far reaching decisions with respect to quality, ecology and economy are based Process Analytical Chemistry, like the whole field of analytical chemistry, plays. Process Analytical Chemistry: Control, Optimization, Quality, Economy. Front Cover · Karl H. Koch. Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 25, - Science.
Some of the more recent analytical instruments for milk analysis that has been introduced, but are not yet standard and include: Fourier transform MIR spectroscopy for milk-based quantitative, qualitative phenotypic and genomic analysis. MAA is the only acute phase protein produced in response to bacterial infection in the udder and is therefore an immediate and direct indicates of infection [ 93 ].
PCR polymerase chain reaction is used for bacteria identification and differentiation [ 94 , 95 ]. The milk processing chain demands accurate and quality products from farm to plate and for all of its products, e. It must start with the raw material at farm level including; dairy herd improvement testing, to payment parameters, and quality control of the raw milk.