Elder , eldest or older , oldest? End or finish? Especially or specially? Every one or everyone? Except or except for? Expect , hope or wait? Experience or experiment?
Fall or fall down? Far or a long way? Further but not farther. Age Comparison: nouns more money , the most points Gender Piece words and group words Nouns Nouns and gender Nouns and prepositions Nouns: compound nouns Nouns: countable and uncountable Nouns: form Nouns: forming nouns from other words Nouns: singular and plural. Noun phrases Noun phrases: complements Noun phrases: noun phrases and verbs Noun phrases: order Noun phrases: two noun phrases together Noun phrases: uses.
Pronouns: possessive my , mine , your , yours , etc. Pronouns: reflexive myself , themselves , etc.
Questions: interrogative pronouns what , who Relative pronouns Someone , somebody , something , somewhere That. Above After as a preposition and conjunction After or afterwards as an adverb. Below referring forward in writing. Near as an adjective. Over as a preposition Over : typical errors Over as a prefix Over as an adjective: be over Over as an adverb.
To : the to -infinitive. Until as a conjunction. Within : space Within : time. As … as As if and as though As long as and so long as As well as As. Comparison: clauses bigger than we had imagined Comparison: comparisons of equality as tall as his father Contrasts. And Because , because of and cos , cos of Before Both … and as a linking expression But.
How Negation Neither, neither … nor and not … either Not Questions Questions: alternative questions Is it black or grey? Questions: two-step questions Questions: typical errors Questions: wh- questions Questions: yes-no questions Are you feeling cold? Relative clauses Relative clauses referring to a whole sentence Relative clauses: defining and non-defining Relative clauses: typical errors.
Reported speech Reported speech: direct speech Reported speech: indirect speech. So and not with expect , hope , think , etc. Such as. Cleft sentences It was in June we got married. Inversion Made from , made of , made out of , made with No sooner Not only … but also Word order and focus Word order: structures.
Downtoners Exclamations Hedges just Hyperbole. Area: length, width, depth and height Number Time. Geographical places Names and titles: addressing people Nationalities, languages, countries and regions Place names Sexist language. Adverbs as short responses definitely , certainly All right and alright Chunks as frames Headers and tails Here and there Interjections ouch, hooray Intonation Just Kind of and sort of Oh Pronunciation Question: follow-up questions Questions: echo and checking questions Questions: short forms So: other uses in speaking Substitution Tags Yes.
British and American English Dialect Double negatives and usage Formal and informal language Newspaper headlines Register Slang Standard and non-standard language Swearing and taboo expressions. Finite and non-finite verbs Table of irregular verbs Verb phrases Verbs Verbs and verb phrases: typical errors Verbs: basic forms Verbs: formation Verbs: multi-word verbs Verbs: types. Be Be expressions be able to , be due to. Future: other expressions to talk about the future Future: be going to I am going to work?
Imperative clauses Be quiet! Infinitive: active or passive? Infinitives with and without to. Get passive Have something done Passive. Past Past continuous I was working Past continuous or past simple? Past perfect continuous I had been working Past perfect simple I had worked Past perfect simple or past perfect continuous? Past perfect simple or past simple? Past simple I worked Past simple or present perfect?
Past verb forms referring to the present Past: typical errors Used to. Present Present continuous I am working Present perfect continuous I have been working Present perfect simple I have worked Present perfect simple or present perfect continuous? Present perfect: typical errors Present simple I work Present simple or present continuous?
Present verb forms referring to the past Present: typical errors. Hear , see , etc. My word lists. Tell us about this example sentence:. This is a good example of how the word is used. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. The sentence contains offensive content.
Cancel Submit. The subordinate clauses identified in the text from these languages, may occur with subordinate conjunct in any one of the languages in question. The next section will show how subordinate clauses from the four languages are analysed based on the Myers Scotton insertion approach 3.
Data Presentation 3. In the code-switching data, 34 subordinating clauses were identified they cut across all the languages that participated in the discourse text. Nigerian Arabic and Hausa have considerable representation, while standard Arabic and Kanuri K have the least or no representation among them. The following table shows the sequence order of arrangement to the subordinating clause used in different discourse languages. Collect money Right now there is someone who gathered money? The first two sentence complements are mixture of Nigerian Arabic and Hausa while the last comprises only of Nigerian Arabic elements.
What appears to be interesting in the two parts of the constituent subordinate conjunct is their ability to qualify both as matrix languages in the same structure something considered to be theoretically impossible in the matrix language frame approach. The other two examples, 4 and 5 have only one matrix language each; Hausa and Nigerian Arabic respectively though the 4th example has two language parts.
Quick that one who came pers. The Hausa part of the constituent with subordinate conjunct underlined are all shown in italic boldface. For example the constituent in example 6 comprises two parts; the first part is in Nigerian Arabic and the second Hausa. Functional elements used in the two language parts qualify both as matrix languages giving the presence of the two languages functional elements in the structure e.
Vice Chancellor, serve as the embedded language islands in the structure. The first and second constituents with functional elements from Nigerian Arabic and Hausa show that they are the matrix or dominant languages in the two constituent structures.
The functional words in both examples came from Nigerian Arabic. These functional elements all came Nigerian Arabic is in control of the functional elements. It is thus the matrix language, while Standard Arabic provides the inserted material and it is the embedded language in the structure. The structure of the subordinating elements reported from the different languages that participated in code switching, clearly showed, the influence of the matrix languages in the discourse structure i.
Hausa and Nigerian Shuwa. Conclusion Our analysis on the subordinating conjuncts occurring in subordinate clauses in the four languages used in the CS data above, clearly points to the grammatical function of subordinating clauses as complement, adverbial and subject. The occurrence of the items in different languages structures did not affect the functional distribution of the elements in CS.
The elements sequence order in the CS structure as shown in table 1 above represent the grammatical order in subordinating elements clauses in code switching text, which implies that the same grammatical ordering will be observed in a more or less monolingual text.
At the code-switching level, the dominant languages in the subordinate structure are Nigerian Arabic and Hausa which were technically the matrix languages in the subordinating clauses. English and Standard Arabic remain the providers of lexical elements and are thus the embedded languages in the CS structure. What we found interesting in subordinating clauses in code switching, is the occurrence of two language parts where each one plays the role of a matrix language in the case of example 3 above. This is considered a counter example to the matrix language frame model MLF and therefore serves as complement to it i.
This paper also suggests the proper investigation into multilingual communities to see how the matrix language frame model withstands the test of many languages participating in a discourse text. References Azuma, S. Linguistics Bouman, L. Tilburg: Tilburg University press. Bouman, L and Caubet, D.
Owens ed. Arabic as a Minority Language.
Berlin : Mouton de Gruyter, We Learn Kanuri. Koln : Rudiger Verlage. Levelt, W. Speaking: from Intention to Articulation. Mai figured out how to fix the garbage disposal. The clauses above contain a subject and a verb, and they finish the thought they have started; they are complete simple sentences. For the sake of variety, however, you will often want to combine simple sentences using coordination to create compound sentences.
You can choose one of two methods:. When you use one of the FANBOYS between independent clauses, you signal that the clauses are equal sort of like how two independent roommates are equals. These two methods of coordination are demonstrated below:.
Jennifer put a new washer in the bathroom faucet before leaving for the party; Mai figured out how to fix the garbage disposal. Jennifer put a new washer in the bathroom faucet before leaving for the party, and Mai figured out how to fix the garbage disposal. If you choose to coordinate two independent clauses using a semicolon, you have another option.
You may choose to add a conjunctive adverb followed by a comma-the adverb acts rather like an introductory phrase after the semicolon:. Jennifer put a new washer in the bathroom faucet before leaving for the party; moreover, Mai figured out how to fix the garbage disposal. A conjunctive adverb adds meaning or clarifies the relationship between the two clauses.
See how choosing a different conjunctive adverb subtly changes the meaning of the pair:. Jennifer put a new washer in the bathroom faucet before leaving for the party; however, Mai figured out how to fix the garbage disposal. Coordinating Independent Clauses Method 1 Semicolon Independent clause ; Independent clause Semicolon with conjunctive adverb and comma Independent clause ;moreover, ;however, ;consequently, ;indeed, ;nevertheless, ;therefore, Independent clause Method 2 Comma and coordinating conjunction Independent clause , for , and , nor , but , or , yet , so Independent clause.
Note: Do not try to join two independent clauses with a simple comma. This error is called a comma splice. Furthermore, do not try to join two independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction alone, omitting the comma. This error is called a run-on.
Lytle, Eldon G. A Grammar of Subordinate Structures in English. Series:Janua Linguarum. Series Practica DE GRUYTER MOUTON. In grammar, subordination is the process of linking two clauses in a sentence so that one clause is dependent on, (Kersti Börjars and Kate Burridge, Introducing English Grammar, 2nd ed. Analyzing Subordinate Structures.
Dependent clauses are needy In contrast to an independent clause, a dependent clause is incomplete; it is a type of sentence fragment. A dependent clause may contain a subject and a verb, but it begins a thought that it doesn't finish:. Because Amy left the iron on. When the firemen arrived at the dorm. The words that are to blame for making the above dependent clauses dependent are the words because and when. Inquiring minds want to know-what happened as a result of the iron being left on?